Effect of twice daily treatment with a probiotic expressing globotetraose, initiated 24 hours post-inoculation with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , on mean fecal Shiga toxin 2e titers in piglets. Globotetraose is the preferred receptor for Stx2e. A). Treatment with the probiotic significantly reduced titers compared to sham treated pigs on days 3–8 post inoculation (*, P < 0.01, **P < 0.001, repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test). Error bars indicate SEM. B). Although fecal Shiga toxin levels were reduced overall within the probiotic group, pigs that developed clinical edema disease had higher levels of fecal Shiga toxin, similar to the sham treated group.