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Table 4 The effect of living in CH on prevalence of depression (GDS) among elderly

From: A pilot study of depression among older people in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Characteristics of elderly study participants Total number (%) Number (%) depressed Crude OR (95%CI) Partially adjusted OR (95%)*
Location     
Community 108(76.6) 34(31.5) Ref Ref
CH 33(23.4) 20(60.6) 3.35(1.49, 7.51) 3.35(1.49, 7.51)
*Age in years     
60-69 91(65.0) 36(39.6) Ref 3.50(1.51, 8.12)
70+ 49(35.0) 17(34.7) 0.81(0.39, 1.67)
Sex     
Male 86(61.0) 26(30.2) Ref 6.70(2.57, 17.43)
Female 55(39.0) 28(50.9) 2.39(1.19, 4.82)
Current Marital status     
Married 82(58.2) 25(30.5) Ref 2.77(1.18, 6.51)
Others 59(41.8) 29(49.2) 2.20(1.10, 4.41)
Death of spouse     
Alive 89(63.1) 29(32.6) Ref 2.96(1.28, 6.88)
Deceased 52(36.9) 25(48.1) 1.92(0.95, 3.86)
Educational level     
At most can read and write 20(14.2) 12(60.0) Ref 3.00(1.30, 6.93)
Grades 1-10 64(45.4) 29(45.3) 0.55(0.20, 1.53)
Above grade 10 57(40.4) 13(22.8) 0.20(0.07, 0.58)
Characteristics of elderly study participants Number Interview Mean (SD) Crude OR (95%CI) Partially adjusted OR (95%)*
Emotional support score 123 14.2(2.3) 0.74(0.62, 0.88) 2.11(0.76, 5.86)
Practical support score 122 6.9(1.7) 0.78(0.63, 0.98) 2.46(0.89, 6.76)
MMSE score 140 25.0(4.5) 0.89(0.82, 0.96) 2.44(1.03, 5.79)
  1. *OR cross bonds to the effect of residence (CH versus community) after adjusting only for the corresponding background characteristic; SD = Standard deviation
  2. Information of one respondent from CH is missing “age in years”.