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Table 2 Detection of persistent low avidity HPV16 or HPV18 antibodies at month 7 stratified by smoking status

From: Impact of smoking on the quantity and quality of antibodies induced by human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 AS04-adjuvanted virus-like-particle vaccine – a pilot study

  Low avidity (= < 40%) High avidity (>40%) OR, 95% CI
HPV16    
Non-smokers (n = 55) 4 (31%) 51 (57%) 1
Smokers (n = 48) 9 (69%) 39 (43%) 2.9 (0.8-10.3)
HPV18
Non-smokers (n = 55) 1 (33%) 54 (54%) 1
Smokers (n = 48) 2 (67%) 46 (46%) 2.8 (0.2-31.6)
HPV16/18
Non-smokers (n = 55) 5 (31%) 50 (57%) 1
Smokers (n = 48) 11 (69%) 37 (43%) 3.0 (1.0*-9.3)
  1. *Exact value = 0.95, and 40% is the cut-off of low avidity.