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Figure 2 | BMC Research Notes

Figure 2

From: Absent right and persistent left superior vena cava: troubleshooting during a challenging pacemaker implant: a case report

Figure 2

Examples of certain persistent left superior vena cava anatomic variations. a. Typical venous drainage into the right atrium. b. Persistent left superior vena cava and its tributaries draining into the coronary sinus. c. Persistent left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium by means of an unroofed coronary sinus. d. Persistent left superior vena cava draining into the coronary sinus and also connected to the right superior vena cava by an innominate vein. e. Persistent left superior vena cava with an absent right superior vena cava as identified in this case report. CS = Coronary sinus; Fen = Fenestrations; IV = Innominate vein; IVC = Inferior vena cava; LIJV = Left internal jugular vein; LSCV = Left subclavian vein; LSVC = Left superior vena cava; RA = Right atrium; RIJV = Right internal jugular vein; RSCV = Right subclavian vein; RSVC = Right superior vena cava.

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