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Table 2 Awareness of mobilisation activities among intervention and control households (n = 807)

From: Promoting latrine construction and use in rural villages practicing open defecation: process evaluation in connection with a randomised controlled trial in Orissa, India

  Intervention (n = 408) Control (n = 399) Difference p-value
  N % N % %  
Mean age of respondent (sd) 45 (15) 41 (14)   
Respondent is female 249 61 222 56 5  
Perceived benefits of having a toilet       
 Convenient when it rains or during floods 187 46 193 48 −2 0.61
 Time saving from walking to OD sites 241 59 189 47 12 0.02
 Health benefits 141 35 114 29 6 0.18
 Safety 128 31 131 33 −2 0.82
 Prevent contaminating the environment 70 17 87 22 −5 0.15
 Convenient at night 118 29 138 35 −6 0.47
 Convenient for elderly 46 11 48 12 −1 0.73
 Convenient for children 47 12 75 19 −7 0.01
 Convenient when sick 19 5 55 14 −9 0.02
 Convenient for disabled person 4 1 6 2 −1 0.51
 Safer for women 71 17 92 23 −6 0.04
 Give privacy to women 82 20 84 21 −1 0.98
 Cost saving 2 0 15 4 −4 <0.01
 Status improved 8 2 16 4 −2 0.04
 Shame 16 4 0 0 4 <0.01
 Good for married women 17 4 1 0 4 <0.01
Heard about sanitation campaign 373 91 194 49 42 <0.001
Heard about campaign from (n = 567)       
 NGO 238 64 38 20 44 <0.001
 VWSC 63 17 0 0 17 <0.001
 Ward member 21 6 30 15 −9 <0.01
 Anganwadi worker 12 3 16 8 −5 0.09
 ASHA 23 6 0 0 6 0.02
 School teacher 3 1 0 0 1 0.09
 Adolescent girls committee 3 1 0 0 1 0.19
 Self-help group 5 1 9 5 −4 0.06
 Neighbours 34 9 59 30 −21 <0.001
 Family 10 3 23 12 −9 <0.01
 Friends 1 0 19 10 −10 <0.001
Heard or seen village walk or mapping exercise 26 6 38 10 −4 0.04
Heard of wealth ranking exercise 1 0 5 1 −1 0.09
Heard of village water and sanitation committee 207 51 37 9 42 <0.001
 Can cite name of at least one VWSC member 169 41 26 7 34 <0.001
 Can explain what VWSC members do 138 34 8 2 32 <0.001
Heard of adolescent girls group 93 23 33 8 15 <0.01
Heard or seen school children rally 147 36 173 43 −7 0.10
Seen wall paintings 178 44 28 7 37 <0.001
Remember content of wall painting (n = 206)       
 Transmission of diarrhoea 103 57 6 21 36 <0.01
 Latrine cost breakdown 104 57 2 8 49 0.01
 Village map 68 38 3 11 27 0.24
Received home visit about sanitation in past 3 mo 242 65 12 3 230 <0.001
Person who came at last visit       
 NGO staff 257 63 11 3 60 <0.001
 VWSC member 13 3 0 0 3 0.21
 Ward member 4 1 7 2 −1 <0.01
 Anganwadi worker 4 1 1 0 1 0.46
 ASHA 12 3 0 0 3 0.36
 SHG member 25 6 2 1 5 0.97
Remember being discussed during last visit       
 Contribution amount 285 70 4 1 69 0.001
 Latrine construction logistics 211 52 10 3 49 0.04
 How to use and maintain latrine 108 26 2 1 25 0.91
 Benefits of having a latrine 80 20 1 0 20 0.88
 Inform about meetings 37 9 0 0 9 0.66
 Kumari committee 2 0 0 0 0 0.12
  1. *p-values calculated using the t-test on village-level percent awareness of or participation in intervention activities.