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Table 5 Demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with musculoskeletal complaints i in 8,439 women and men from an adult general population in Northern Norway in a multivariate regression model

From: High prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal complaints among women in a Norwegian general population: the Tromsø study

  OR**(95% CI)
Total Women Men
Age (5-year age groups) 1.04 (1.01-1.06) 1.03 (1.00-1.06) 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Gender (women vs men) 1.66 (1.50-1.84)   
Self-perceived health status (poor vs good) 3.73 (3.27-4.24) 4.72 (3.82-5.83) 3.17 (2.68-3.74)
Smoking    
Never smoker (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Current smoker 1.41 (1.22-1.62) 1.60 (1.30-1.96) 1.25 (1.02-1.52)
Former smoker 1.21 (1.09-1.35) 1.26 (1.08-1.48) 1.19 (1.02-1.38)
Education level    
Secondary school 1.78 (1.53-2.08) 1.80 (1.43-2.27) 1.76 (1.42-2.18)
Technical school 1.59 (1.39-1.83) 1.51 (1.23-1.85) 1.65 (1.36-2.00)
High school 1.25 (1.03-1.51) 1.22 (0.93-1.61) 1.27 (0.97-1.66)
University <4 years 1.19 (1.04-1.37) 1.18 (0.96-1.45) 1.21 (1.00-1.47)
University >4 years (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00
BMI    
<18.5 kg/m2 0.64 (0.34-1.21) 0.61 (0.30-1.27) 0.75 (0.19-2.89)
18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00
25-29.9 kg/m2 1.28 (1.14-1.43) 1.51 (1.29-1.77) 1.06 (0.91-1.24)
>30 kg/m2 1.42 (1.23-1.65) 1.76 (1.42-2.19) 1.14 (0.93-1.39)
Level of physical activity    
Low (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.17 (1.02-1.33) 1.37 (1.12-1.67) 1.02 (0.85-1.22)
High 1.08 (0.92-1.27) 1.23 (0.94-1.59) 0.97 (0.79-1.19)
Very high 0.87 (0.61-1.23) 0.77 (0.40-1.48) 0.83 (0.55-1.26)
  1. iDefined as having pain and/or stiffness in muscles and joints at least 3 months during the previous year.
  2. **Multivariate regression analysis (bold text = significant result).
  3. Missing values were: BMI (n = 7), self-perceived health (n = 47), smoking status (n = 81), marital status (n = 0), education level (n = 72), physical activity (n = 465). OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; BMI: body mass index.
  4. The Tromsø Study.