Serum cytokine level in patients of pemphigus vulgaris vs. healthy controls. Serum cytokine levels were measured in patients of pemphigus vulgaris and healthy control by ELISA. IL-17 was higher in patients (p < .0001) as compared to healthy control, where the levels were below the detection range (8 pg/ml). Wilcoxon Signed rank test was used, assuming the theoretical median value in healthy population to be 5 pg/ml (A). TGF-β was lower in patients than healthy control, however the difference was not statistically significant (p = .2792, unpaired t test) (B).