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Table 1 Reported prevalence of diabetic retinopathy

From: Prevalence of vascular complications and factors predictive of their development in young adults with type 1 diabetes: systematic literature review

Author(s); country of origin Number of centres Age, mean (SD) yrs.; sample size Any DR Non-proliferative DR Proliferative or treated DR Predictors
Arfken et al. 1998; U.S.A.[31] Not provided 19.0 (11.0) (White); n 215 (n 312 TS)    10.2% Moderate/severe DR (proliferative DR)
OR 12.40 (* 5.31 - 28.98)
Moderate/severe DR in White participants (proliferative DR)
OR 16.55 (* 5.43 - 50.45)
HbA1c (2% change) (proliferative DR)
OR 1.92 (* 1.36 - 2.70)
HbA1c (2% change) in White participants (proliferative DR)
OR 2.17 (* 1.34 - 3.50)
Broe et al. 2014; Denmark[32] Not provided 21.0 (3.3) (In 1995 study), 20.2 (3.2) (Not in 1995 study); n 185 (In 1995 study), n 139 (Not in 1995 study) (n 324 TS)   In 1995 study: 61.2% In 1995 study: 0.5%  
Not in 1995 study: 51.8% Not in 1995 study: 0.7%
James et al. 2014; Australia[34] Not provided 23.0 (3.7); n 95 (2010), n 85 (2011) (n 707 TS) 2010: 13.7% 2011: 9.4%    
LeCaire et al. 2006; U.S.A.[36] Not provided 9 yrs.: 18.8 (7.2) (DR -), 21.1 (6.4) (DR +); n 290 (n 474 TS) 9 yrs.: 47% 9 yrs.: 33% (Min); 11% (M); 2% (Mod - Sev) 9 yrs.: 0.3% Age at examination (per year) (DR)
< 20 years Hazard ratio 1.2 (* 1.1 - 1.3)
≥ 20 years Hazard ratio 1.0 (* 1.0 - 1.0)
Diabetes duration at examination
versus 4 years (DR)
7 years Hazard ratio 1.6 (* 0.8 - 3.3)
9 years Hazard ratio 4.1 (* 2.2 - 7.6)
14 years Hazard ratio 7.9 (* 3.5 - 17.5)
Non -White-race (versus White race)
Hazard ratio 1.6 (* 0.8 - 3.0)
HbA1c (per 1%) by diabetes duration (DR)
4 years Hazard ratio 1.1 (* 1.0 - 1.3)
7 years Hazard ratio 1.4 (* 1.3 - 1.6)
9 years Hazard ratio 1.4 (* 1.2 - 1.6)
14 years Hazard ratio 1.2 (* 1.0 - 1.6)
Male sex (DR)
Hazard ratio 1.3 (* 1.0 - 1.7)
Olsen et al. 1999; Denmark[37] 19 and five^ Median 21.1 (range 12.0 - 26.9); n 205 > 20 yrs. (n 339 TS)   48.9% (Min) 20% (Mod plus)   
Olsen et al. 2004; Denmark[38] 19 and six^ 20.4 (3.2) (Prepubertal diabetes onset), 24.2 (1.3) (Pubertal/post-pubertal diabetes onset); n 304 (Prepubertal diabetes onset), n 49 (Pubertal/post-pubertal diabetes onset ) (n 353 TS) 57.6%    HbA1c (DR); p < 0.0001
Diabetes duration
before puberty (DR); p < 0.05
after the onset of puberty (DR); p < 0.001
Salardi et al. 2012; Italy[40] n 11 Very young pre-pubertal onset 22.0 (4.5); n 53 (n 105 TS) 40% Diabetes duration - < 20 yrs.: 27% > 20 yrs.: 88% 30% (M); 10% (Mod - Sev)   
  1. (DR) Diabetic retinopathy (M) Mild (Min) Minimal (Mod) Moderate (n) Number (OR) Odds ratio (Sev) Severe (SD) Standard deviation.
  2. (TS) Total sample (*) 95% Confidence interval (^) 19 paediatric departments and five/six departments of internal medicine.