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Table 1 Critical issues, potential options and decisions made in designing the cognitive debriefings

From: Linguistic validation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use, for German residential long term care

Sample  
Participants • One facility versus multiple facilities
Sampling criteria for individuals
Items • All questionnaire items versus selected items
Item selection criteria
Data collection  
Technique • Think-aloud
Verbal probing
• Vignettes, card sorts, field-based probes
Details • Concurrent probing versus retrospective probing
• Standardized probes versus free-form probes (combination used in this study)
• Proactive probing versus reactive probing (combination used in this study)
Individual interviews versus focus groups
Face-to-face interviews versus telephone interviews
Documentation • Tape recording versus field protocol (combination used in this study)
Analysis  
Details • Interview data versus field protocols (combination used in this study)
• Literal transcription versus condensed statements
• Deductive analysis using a predefined coding scheme versus inductive development of the codes (combination used in this study)
• Frequency of problems per question versus type and quality of problem(s) (combination used in this study)
  1. Note: Boldface indicates the options chosen in this study.