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Table 3 Factors associated with of anaemia in third trimester of pregnancy in Mpigi, Uganda

From: Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda

  Crude analysis Adjusted analysis*
Characteristic Frequency Women with Hb < 11.0 g/dl n (%) OR (95% CI) of Hb < 11.0 g/dl P- value (trend) OR (95% CI) P value (trend)
Overall anaemia 2436 791 (32.5)     
Age in years       
 Below 20 474 186 (39.2) 1.38 (1.10-1.74) 0.008 (0.016) 1.21 (0.93-1.58) 0.26(0.18)
 20-24 937 298 (31.8) 1 1
 25-29 680 199 (29.3) 0.89 (0.72-1.10) 0.87 (0.68-1.12)
 30-34 176 52 (29.6) 0.90 (0.63-1.28) 0.86 (0.57-1.31)
 ≥35 169 56 (31.1) 1.06 (0.75-1.51) 0.99 (0.63-1.57)
Marital status       
 Single 295 110 (37.3) 1.27 (0.98-1.64) 0.06 0.93 (0.70-1.21) 0.58
 Married 2141 681 (31.8) 1 1
Education level       
 No formal 77 24 (31.2) 1 0.98 (0.94)   
 Lower primary (P1-P4) 169 56 (33.1) 1.09 (0.61-1.95)  
 Upper primary (P5-P7) 967 314 (32.5) 1.06 (0.64-1.75)  
 Secondary(S1-S6) 1158 378 (32.6) 1.07 (0.65-1.76)  
 Tertiary 65 19 (29.2) 0.91 (0.44-1.87)  
Parity       
 Nulliparous 641 244 (38.1) 1.57 (1.21-2.06) 0.004 (0.024) 1.48 (1.08-2.04) 0.08 (0.13)
 1 582 186 (32.0) 1.21 (0.92-1.59) 1.22 (0.91-1.63)
 2 414 116 (28.0) 1 1
 3 286 78 (27.3) 0.96 (0.69-1.35) 0.98 (0.69-1.39)
 4 228 79 (34.7) 1.36 (0.96-1.93) 1.42 (0.97-2.07)
 Para 5+ 285 88 (30.1) 1.14 (0.82-1.60) 1.14 (0.76-1.71)
Timing of 1st visit       
 First trimester 251 92 (36.7) 1 0.10 (0.9) 1 0.22 (0.15)
 Second trimester 1504 466 (31.0) 0.78 (0.59-1.02) 0.79 (0.59-1.05)
 Third trimester 672 231 (34.4) 0.90 (0.67-1.22) 0.75 (0.54-1.05)
Episodes of malaria       
 Zero 1501 454 (30.3) 1 0.003 1 0.002
 One or more 935 337 (36.0)) 1.30 (1.09-1.54)   1.32 (1.11-1.58)  
HIV Sero-status       
 Negative 2246 703 (31.3) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
 Positive 190 88 (44.0) 1.89 (1.40-2.55)   2.13 (1.56-2.90)  
Iron sulphate taken       
 None 830 322 (38.8) 1.54 (1.29-1.83) <0.001 1.66 (1.36-2.03) <0.001
 Yes 1606 469 (29.2) 1 1
Doses of IPT       
 Two 929 271 (29.2) 1 0.06 1 0.15
 One or none 1507 520 (34.5) 1.28 (1.07-1.53) 1.15 (0.95-1.40)
Doses of anti-helminthics taken       
 One + 1925 617 (32.1) 1 0.39   
 Zero 511 174 (34.1) 1.09 (0.89-1.35)  
  1. Hb: Haemoglobin; OR: Odds ratios; IPT: Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria.
  2. P-values are from the likelihood ratio test, *adjusted for age, parity, marital status, iron tablets intake, IPT, malaria, timing of first antenatal visit and HIV-sero-status.