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Table 1 Distribution of background characteristics associated with access to and use of maternal health services in Mdantsane (with p-values and chi-square )

From: Determinants of access to and use of maternal health care services in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative investigation

Characteristics Access to maternal health services Antenatal visits for pregnancy
No Yes P-value χ2 1 to 4 5+ P-value χ2
  (n =173) (n =94) (n =156) (n =111)
Age    0.8 2.2    0.0** 14.3
 15-19 61.5 38.5    69.2 30.8   
 20-24 66.0 34.0    75.5 24.5   
 25-29 62.9 37.1    62.9 37.1   
 30-34 64.1 35.9    54.7 45.3   
 35-39 61.2 38.8    44.9 55.1   
 40 and above 76.9 23.1    42.3 57.7   
Marital status    0.9 0.0    0.8 0.1
 Married 65.5 34.5    60.0 40.0   
 Not married 64.6 35.4    58.0 42.0   
Maternal education    0.7 1.4    0.6 2.1
 None 62.5 37.5    75.0 25.0   
 Primary 71.4 28.6    55.1 44.9   
 Secondary 62.8 37.2    57.4 42.6   
 Tertiary 68.2 31.8    68.2 31.8   
Occupation    0.0*** 13.5    0.2 6.8
 None 61.1 38.9    52.8 47.2   
 Housewife 80.0 20.0    53.3 46.7   
 Self-employed 69.2 30.8    74.4 25.6   
 Government employee 12.5 87.5    50.0 50.0   
 Private employee 74.3 25.7    65.7 34.3   
 Living on social grants 66.1 33.9    56.5 43.5   
Residential area    0.3 1.2    0.5 0.4
 Within Mdantsane 62.3 37.7    56.9 43.1   
 Outside Mdantsane 69.0 31.0    61.0 39.0   
Distance to hospital/health facility    0.3 1.0    0.6 0.2
 More than 20 km 68.1 31.9    60.2 39.8   
 Less than 20 km 62.3 37.7    57.1 42.9   
Financial difficulties    0.2 2.9    0.6 0.9
 Difficult 66.1 33.9    58.3 41.7   
 Not difficult 57.8 42.2    60.9 39.1   
 Did not try to find/get money 81.8 18.2    45.5 54.5   
Means of travelling/transport    0.2 3.4    0.2 3.4
 Walk 55.6 44.4    38.9 61.1   
 Public transport 64.1 35.9    59.3 40.7   
 Private transport 83.3 16.7    66.7 33.3   
Cultural factors    0.0* 8.7    0.6 0.4
 Yes 25.0 75.0    66.7 33.3   
 No 66.7 33.3    58.0 42.0   
Did you find the health care information useful?    0.0* 22.3    0.8 0.0
 Yes 41.2 58.8    57.4 42.6   
 No 72.9 27.1    58.8 41.2   
Knowledge of maternal services offered    0.1 3.6    0.9 0.0
 Yes 62.3 37.7    58.3 41.7   
 No 77.3 22.7    59.1 40.9   
Medical aid    0.0* 26.4    0.6 0.3
 Yes 10.5 89.5    52.6 47.4   
 No 69.0 31.0    58.9 41.1   
  1. Note: 5+ = 5 and above; Significance level: * = P<0.001; ** = P<0.01; *** = P<0.05.