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Table 2 Parameter estimates of the association of grip strength with sociodemographic and health variables among older South Africans by gender

From: Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa

Variables Men Women
Sociodemographics Beta 95% CI Beta 95% CI
Age     
  50–59 Reference    
  60–69 -4.57 (-8.20 to -0.98)* -2.55 (-6.10 to 1.01) -1.14 (-3.86 to 1.58) 1.37 (-1.03 to 3.78)
  70–79 -5.41 (-9.91 to -0.90)* -3.53 (-9.38 to 2.32) -4.26 (-7.95 to -0.56)* -1.23 (-5.24 to 2.79)
  80+ -9.32 (-17.49 to -1.15)* -2.25 (-10.22-5.72) -7.74 (-10.97 to -4.51)*** -2.37 (-6.60 to 1.85)
Population group     
  African Black Reference ---   ---
  White 7.62 (-1.76 to 17.00)   8.21 (-1.70 to 18.12)  
  Coloured -4.39 (-14.16 to 5.37)   -2.42 (-9.23 to 4.39)  
  Indian or Asian -5.90 (-15.15 to 3.35)   0.02 (-4.05 to 4.08)  
Educational level     
  No schooling Reference ---   
  Less than primary 2.34 (-2.07 to 6.75)   0.26 (-1.86 to 2.38) 1.17 (-1.44 to 3.78)
  Primary -3.24 (-7.06 to 0.56)   1.25 (-1.56 to 4.06) 0.30 (-2.31 to 2.92)
  Secondary 3.98 (-0.21 to 8.16)   5.51 (1.63 to 9.38)** 2.07 (-1.56 to 5.70)
Wealth     
  Low Reference ---   ---
  Medium 2.08 (-3.33 to 7.49)   1.70 (-0.89 to 4.29)  
  High 0.83 (-3.74 to 5.41)   3.85 (-0.11 to 7.80)  
Geolocality     
  Rural Reference ---   ---
  Urban 0.57 (-4.34 to 5.49)   0.83 (-4.02 to 5.67)  
Health variables     
Height (cms) 0.19 (0.08 to 0.30)*** 0.15 (0.02 to 0.28)* 0.20 (0.08 to 0.33)** 0.13 (0.02 to 0.25)*
Underweight -9.41 (-17.86 to -0.95)* -8.41 (-14.87 to -1.94)* 1.17 (-5.30 to 7.64) ---
Obese -0.50 (-5.53 to 4.52) --- -0.37 (-2.72 to 1.99) ---
Cognitive functioning 7.61 (3.99 to 11.22)*** 2.84 (-0.30 to 5.97) 8.96 (5.34 to 12.58)*** 6.40 (3.07 to 9.74)***
Self-rated health     
  Very good/good Reference    
  Moderate -3.71 (-8.03 to 0.62) 1.88 (-3.31 to 7.06) -4.67 (-7.59 to -1.75)** 0.17 (-2.70 to 3.04)
  Bad/very bad -8.86 (-14.44 to -3.29)** 0.82 (-3.94 to 5.57) -6.75 (-11.41 to -2.08)** 1.52 (-3.06 to 6.10)
Functional disability     
  Low Reference    
  Medium -5.95 (-9.04 to -2.85)*** -5.95 (-8.54 to -3.36)*** -6.93 (-10.62 to -3.24)*** -6.33 (-10.03 to -2.63)***
  High -11.69 (-15.58 to -7.80)*** -8.92 (-14.7 to -3.22)** -10.64 (-14.90 to -6.39)*** -8.41 (-12.92 to -3.90)***
Chronic conditions (≥2 or more) -8.87 (-14.14 to -3.60)*** -5.03 (-11.1 to 1.06) -4.21 (-6.87 to -1.56)** -2.91 (-6.23 to 0.39)
Depression -4.32 (-13.36 to 4.71) --- -2.21 (-9.31 to 4.90) ---
Daily tobacco use 2.04 (-1.34 to 5.42) --- -0.22 (-3.69 to 3.26) ---
Alcohol use (10 drinks or more a week) 3.95 (-2.44 to 10.34) --- -8.48 (-16.24 to -0.72)* -7.99 (-17.77 to 1.78)
Physical inactivity -1.65 (-5.27 to 1.98) --- -1.53 (-5.50 to 2.44) ---
  1. ***P < .001; **P < .01; *P < .05.