Fire stress activation of the p46 and p44 MAPKs locally and systemically in L. temulentum . Three-week-old plants were exposed to direct flame from a propane torch for a duration 1–2 seconds. (A) The region of the leaves and tiller exposed to the flame are indicated by arrows in the illustration. (B) One plant per time point was collected at the times indicated, the tissues from the fire treated tiller and untreated systemic tiller were collected and processed separately. To determine MAPK activity, immunoblots of protein extracts were performed using anti-phospho-MAPK (Erk1/2) antibody. The experiments were independently repeated a minimum of three times. Representative blots are presented.