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Table 5 Associations between number of different helminth parasite infections and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes cultured in medium alone (i.e. spontaneous cytokine production) in 1,271 children

From: Effects of helminth co-infections on atopy, asthma and cytokine production in children living in a poor urban area in Latin America

Number of helminth infections Spontaneous cytokine production
n (%) % Non-responders % Responders Crude Adjusted
  (n) (n) #OR (95% CI) ##OR (95% CI)
IFN-γ [mean (pg/mL) = 21.0]*
   (n = 870) (n = 114)   
0 450 (445.7) 89.8 10.2 1 1
1 361 (36.7) 87.8 12.2 1.22 (0.79; 1.89) 1.17 (0.74; 1.84)
2 117 (11.9) 86.3 13.7 1.39 (0.76; 2.56) 1.35 (0.72; 2.53)
3 56 (5.7) 85.7 14.3 1.46 (0.65; 3.28) 1.36 (0.59; 3.11)
IL-5 [mean (pg/mL) = 16.0]*
   (n = 1.150) (n = 66)   
0 569 (46.8) 95.1 4.9 1 1
1 443 (36.4) 94.1 5.9 1.20 (0.70; 2.09) 1.18 (0.67; 2.07)
2 144 (11.8) 95.8 4.2 0.84 (0.34; 2.07) 0.86 (0.34; 2.15)
3 60 (5.0) 90.0 10.0 2.15 (0.85; 5.41) 2.18 (0.84; 5.67)
IL-10 [mean (pg/mL) = 35.6]*
   (n = 1.213) (n = 110)   
0 610 (46.1) 95.1 4.9 1 1
1 482 (36.4) 90.7 9.3 1.99 (1.23; 3.21) 1.99 (1.22; 3.24)
2 164 (12.4) 88.4 11.6 2.53 (1.39; 4.63) 2.45 (1.32; 4.55)
3 67 (5.1) 76.1 23.9 6.07 (3.10; 11.86) 5.97 (2.97; 12.01)
IL-13 [mean (pg/mL) = 85.6]*
   (n = 826) (n = 432)   
0 542 (45.5) 65.4 34.6 1 1
1 458 (36.4) 66.6 33.4 0.95 (0.73; 1.23) 0.96 (0.73; 1.24)
2 152 (12.1) 64.5 35.5 1.04 (0.72; 1.51) 1.07 (0.73; 1.57)
3 64 (5.0) 64.1 35.9 1.06 (0.62; 1.82) 1.10 (0.63; 1.91)
  1. #Crude logist analysis. ##Logist analysis adjusted for gender, age, maternal education and parental asthma. *Geometric mean; Numbers in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05. OR – odds ratio. 95% CI – 95% confidence interval.