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Table 5 Students’ awareness and knowledge about cigarettes smoking effects on oral health (N = 547)

From: Prevalence, social acceptance, and awareness of waterpipe smoking among dental university students: a cross sectional survey conducted in Jordan

Awareness and knowledge questions Responses N (%)
Agree Disagree Don’t know
Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%) Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%) Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%)
Cigarettes smoking is less harmful to oral health than Waterpipe smoking 54(35.8) 164(41.6) 218(40.0) 87(57.6) 189(48.0) 276(50.6) 10(6.6) 41(10.4) 51(9.4)
Cigarettes smoking transfers infectious diseases 60 (39.7) 179 (45.4) 239 (43.9) 75 (49.7) 160 (40.6) 235 (43.1) 16 (10.6) 55 (14.0) 71 (13.0)
Cigarettes smoking is a risk factor for oral cancer 122 (80.8) 345(87.6) 467 (85.7) 12 (7.9) 13 (3.3) 25 (4.6) 17 (11.3) 36 (9.1) 53 (9.7)
Cigarettes smoking may aggregate the inflammation of gum tissues 132 (87.4) 359(91.3) 491 (90.3) 9 (6.0) 13 (3.3) 22 (4.0) 10 (6.6) 21 (5.3) 31 (5.7)
Cigarettes smoking increases the incidence of dry sockets 114 (75.5) 311(78.7) 425 (77.8) 9 (6.0) 18 (4.6) 27 (4.9) 28 (18.5) 66 (16.7) 94 (17.2)
Cigarettes smoking causes teeth and oral tissues staining 134 (88.7) 372(94.2) 506 (92.7) 4 (2.6) 10 (2.5) 14 (2.6) 13 (8.6) 13 (3.3) 26 (4.8)
Cigarettes smoking causes halitosis 129 (86.6) 368 (93.4) 497 (91.5) 9 (6.0) 9 (2.3) 18 (3.3) 11 (7.4) 17 (4.3) 28 (5.2)
Cigarettes smoking delays wound healing time 96 (63.6) 255 (64.7) 351 (64.4) 22 (14.6) 42 (10.7) 64 (11.7) 33 (21.9) 97 (24.6) 130 (23.9)
Cigarettes smoking is associated with dental implant failure 84 (55.6) 236 (59.9) 320 (58.7) 17 (11.3) 20 (5.1) 37 (6.8) 49 (32.5) 138 (35.0) 187 (34.3)
Cigarettes smoking increases risk of dental decay 99 (65.6) 291 (73.9) 390 (71.6) 23 (15.2) 40 (10.2) 63 (11.6) 29 (19.2) 63 (16.0) 92 (16.9)