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Table 1 Message coding guidelines and sample messages

From: Identification of gain- and loss-framed cancer screening messages that appeared in municipal newsletters in Japan

Coding guideline Example sentence
Message frame Emphasis of messages  
Gain-framed (a) The benefits of cancer screening. When you obtain cancer screenings, you are taking advantage of the best method for detecting cancer early.
The advantage of detecting cancer early is that you are more likely to increase your treatment options.
Detecting cancer early can save your life.
(b) The costs avoided by cancer screening. If a cancer is detected early, it is less likely to be fatal.
The advantage of detecting cancer early is that you may need less radical procedures.
Detecting cancer early can reduce your medical costs.
Loss-framed (a) The costs of not obtaining cancer screening. Failing to detect cancer early can cost you your life.
The disadvantage of failing to detect cancer early is that you may need radical procedures.
If cancer is detected late, it is more likely to be fatal.
(b) The benefits missed by not obtaining cancer screening. When you avoid obtaining cancer screening, you are failing to take advantage of the best method for detecting cancer early.
The disadvantage of failing to detect cancer early is that you may have fewer treatment options.