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Table 2 Clinical and Laboratory presentations of study participants in relation to serum vitamin B 12 levels

From: Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda

Variable ≥ 240 pg/ml N = 200 (%) <240 pg/ml N = 80 (%) Odds ratio (95% C.I) p-value
MMSE     
Abnormal 118 (71.1) 48 (28.9) 1  
Normal 82 (71.9) 32 (28.1) 0.96 (0.57-1.63) 0.878
Hyperpigmentation of knuckles     
No 199 (71.6) 79 (28.4) 1  
Yes 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 2.52 (0.16-40.77) 0.515
Joint position sense     
Present 159 (71.3) 64 (28.7) 1  
Absent 37 (75.5) 12 (24.5) 0.81 (0.40-1.64) 0.553
Not Sure 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 2.48 (0.60-10.24) 0.208
Vibration sense     
Present 192 (73.3) 70 (26.7) 1  
Absent 5 (41.7) 7 (58.3) 3.84 (1.18-12.49) 0.025
Not sure 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 2.74 (0.54-13.90) 0.223
Brisk knee jerks     
Present 17 (60.7) 11 (39.3) 1  
Absent 183 (72.6) 69 (27.4) 0.58 (0.26-1.31) 0.19
Absent ankle jerks     
No 195 (71.7) 77 (28.3) 1  
Yes 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5) 1.52 (0.35-6.51) 0.573
RBC haemoglobinisation     
Normochromic 170 (73.3) 62 (26.7) 1  
Hypochromic 22 (91.7) 2 (8.3) 0.25 (0.06-1.09) 0.065
Hyperchromic 5 (33.3) 10 (66.7) 5.48 (1.80-16.68) 0.003
Polychromasia 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7) 5.48 (1.33-22.60) 0.019
RBC size     
Normocytic 171 (73.4) 62 (26.6) 1  
Microcytic 22 (91.7) 2 (8.3) 0.25 (0.06-1.10) 0.066
Macrocytic 4 (28.6) 10 (71.4) 6.90 (2.09-22.79) 0.002
Anisocytosis 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7) 5.52 (1.34-22.73) 0.018
RBC shape     
Normal 172 (73.8) 61 (26.2) 1  
Target cells 20 (90.9) 2 (9.1) 0.28 (0.064-1.24) 0.094
Macroovalocytes 6 (26.1) 17 (73.9) 7.99 (3.01-21.19) <0.0001
Hypersegmeted neutrophils     
No 198 (71.5) 79 (28.5) 1  
Yes 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 1.25 (0.11-14.01) 0.855
Haemoglobin g/dL     
Mean ± SD 12.3 ± 1.79 12.5 ± 1.74 1.07 (0.93-1.25) 0.351
MCV (FL)     
Mean ± SD 85.1 ± 8.5 89.96 ± 9.2 1.07 (1.03-1.10) <0.0001
  1. C.I = Confidence Interval; RBC = Red Blood Cell; MCV = Mean Cell Volume; SD = Standard Deviation.