Skip to main content

Table 3 Risk factors of study participants and serum vitamin B 12 levels

From: Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda

Variable <240 pg/ml N = 80 (%) Unadjusted OR (95% C.I.) p-value Adjusted OR (95% C.I.) p-value
Sex      
Male 62 (35.6) 1   1  
Female 18 (17) 0.35 (0.20-0.67) 0.001 0.4 (0.22 - 0.73) 0.003
Age      
≤ 40 62 (27) 1    
41 - 60 16 (36.4) 1.55 (0.79-3.06) 0.207   
≥ 61 2 (33.3) 1.35 (0.24-7.58) 0.73   
Diarrhoea (> 1 month)      
No 75 (27.8) 1    
Yes 5 (50.0) 2.6 (0.73-9.24) 0.14   
Duration of psychiatric illness      
< 3 years 26 (19.7) 1   1  
≥ 3 years 54 (36.5) 2.34 (1.36-4.06) 0.002 2.27 (1.29 - 3.98) 0.004
Duration of hospitalisation      
≥ 3 weeks 74 (27.4) 1   1  
< 3 weeks 6 (60.0) 3.97 (1.09-14.48) 0.037 4.01 (1.02 - 15.79) 0.047
Alcohol consumption      
No 57 (29.8) 1    
Yes 23 (25.8) 0.82 (0.46-1.44) 0.491   
Anticonvulsants      
No 64 (26.8) 1    
Yes 16 (39.0) 1.75 (0.88-3.49) 0.112   
*Duration of anticonvulsants      
≤ 4 years 11 (32.4) 1    
>4 years 5 (83.3) 10.46 (1.09 – 100.59) 0.042   
HIV test      
Positive 8 (30.8) 1    
Negative 72 (28.3) 1.12 (0.47-2.70) 0.795   
Schizophrenia      
No 39 (23.5) 1   1  
yes 41 (36.0) 1.8 (1.08-3.09) 0.024 1.74 (1.00-3.02) 0.049
Bipolar affective disorder      
No 54 (30.5) 1    
Yes 26 (25.2) 0.77 (0.45-1.33) 0.348   
Depression      
No 77 (28.9) 1    
Yes 3 (21.4) 0.67 (0.18-2.47) 0.546   
Organic brain syndrome      
No 79 (28.7) 1    
Yes 1 (20.0) 0.62 (0.68-5.64) 0.671   
Mental retardation      
No 79 (28.4) 1    
Yes 1 (50.0) 2.52 (0.16-40.77) 0.515   
Substance abuse      
No 74 (29.4) 1    
Yes 6 (21.4) 0.66 (0.26-1.68) 0.381   
HIV associated psychosis      
No 78 (28.9) 1    
Yes 2 (20.0) 0.61 (0.13-2.96) 0.545   
  1. *Duration of Anticonvulsants: Participants who took Carbamazepine for the given periods. C.I. = Confidence Interval; OR = Odds Ratio.