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Table 1 History of Marburg outbreaks, 1967–2008

From: Calculation of incubation period and serial interval from multiple outbreaks of Marburg virus disease

Outbreak Circumstances Total cases Deaths (CFR) Source of data
Germany and Yugoslavia ex. Uganda, 1967 Infected laboratory primates imported from Uganda; lab workers and contacts developed illness 31 7 (23%) [2, 4]
South Africa ex. Zimbabwe, 1975 Australian traveler to Zimbabwe visited South Africa and developed symptoms; infected traveling companion and South African nurse 3 1 (33%) [5]
Kenya, 1980 Visitor to Kitum cave died; infected doctor, who survived 2 1 (50%) [6]
Kenya, 1987 Visitor to Kitum cave died 1 1 (100%) [7]
Russia, 1988 A laboratory worker died after a needlestick at ‘Vektor’ bioweapons research facility 1 1 (100%) [8]
Russia, 1990 A laboratory worker was infected after a needlestick at Vektor, but survived 1 0 (0%) [9]
DR Congo, 1998–2000 Outbreak originating among miners in a gold mine; spread to community; sporadic cases for years after main outbreak ceased 154 128 (83%) Primary data
Angola, 2004–2005 Urban outbreak amplified through nosocomial transmission 252 227 (90%) Primary data
Uganda, 2007 Informal gold miners in Kamwenge District, Uganda infected; infection in mine +/− person-to-person transmission 4 2 (50%) [3]
Colorado ex. Uganda, 2008 U.S. traveler visited ‘Python’ cave in Maramagambo forest in Uganda; developed illness upon return to U.S. 1 0 (0%) [10]
Netherlands ex. Uganda, 2008 Dutch traveler visited ‘Python’ cave in Maramagambo forest in Uganda; developed illness upon return to Netherlands 1 1 (100%) [11]
GRAND TOTAL   451 369 (82%)  
  1. CFR Case Fatality Ratio.