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Table 1 Participant sociodemographic characteristics

From: Disclosure of congenital cleft lip and palate to Japanese patients: reported patient experiences and relationship to self-esteem

  Total
No. patients (n = 71) (%)
Sex 20 (28.2)
 Male 51 (71.8)
 Female   
Age, mean ± SD (range, 20–75 years) 33.8 ± 7.5
CL/P type   
 Unilateral CL/P 33 (46.5)
 Bilateral CL/P 19 (26.8)
 Unknown CL/P 8 (15.4)
 Cleft lip (unilateral) 5 (7.0)
 Cleft lip (unknown) 1 (1.4)
 Cleft palate 1 (1.4)
 No answer 4 (5.6)
aRecruitment   
 Hospital 10 (14.1)
 Patient association 27 (38.0)
 Snowball sampling 34 (47.9)
bSelf-esteem score (range, 10–50) 33.0 ± 4.1
Self-stigma score (range, 3–12) 6.29 ± 1.8
Disclosure score (range, 3–12) 10.7 ± 6.2
  1. CL/P, Cleft lip and palate; SD, standard deviation; No., number.
  2. aStudy participants were recruited as follows: during routine examination (hospital route), through the Association of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Japan (patient association route), or by acquaintance with an investigator or other participant (Snowball sampling).
  3. bData presented as the mean ± standard deviation.