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Table 5 Significant differences in survey scores and responses between the high and low self-esteem groups

From: Disclosure of congenital cleft lip and palate to Japanese patients: reported patient experiences and relationship to self-esteem

  High SE group (n = 25) Low SE group (n = 20)  
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-valued
Self-esteem score (range, 10–50) 41.0 ± 3.8 22.5 ± 4.8 0.000
Self-stigma score (range, 3–12) 5.0 ± 0.9 7.7 ± 2.8 0.006
Disclosure of CL/P to others (range, 3–12) 12.1 ± 1.4 7.0 ± 3.0 0.000
I was raised not to be conscious about my CL/Pa 12 (48.0%) 16 (80.0%) 0.045
Period during which participants received sufficient support from someone important to them (range, 1–5)b,c 1.8 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.7 0.054
Period during which participant actively asked doctors questions about CL/P (range, 1–5)b,c 1.2 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.4 0.079
  1. SE, self-esteem; SD, standard deviation; CL/P cleft lip and palate.
  2. aNumber (percentage) of participants who answered “yes” on this survey question.
  3. bResponses from 45 participants (25 high SE and 20 low SE subjects) who consulted someone upon experiencing difficulty with their CL/P.
  4. cFor each period (early elementary school, 6–8 years; late elementary school, 9–11 years; junior high school, 12–15 years; high school, 16–18 years; and ≥19 years), 1 point was given if the subject answered that he/she was treated well, for a maximum of 5 points.
  5. dSignificance defined as p < 0.08.