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Table 2 Risk factors associated with exposure to bats among persons living near bat refuges in Guatemala

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala

Category Subcategory Exposed to bats (N = 77) Non-exposed to bats (N = 193) Total (N = 270) P-value Odds ratio (95% CI)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Demographics Age ≤ 46 years§ 42 (55 ) 140 (73) 182 (67) 0.006 0.46 (0.25 -0.81)
Female 45 (58) 152 (79) 197(73) 0.001 0.38 (0.21 -0.70)
Completed primary school 14(18) 51 (26) 65 (24) 0.21 0.62 (0.29-1.23)
Rabies knowledge Basic or no rabies knowledge 77(100) 192 (99) 269 (99) 1 0.80 (0.03- 20.7)
Animal bites as mechanism of transmission 56(73) 136(70 ) 192 (71) 0.76 1.11 (0.60-2.12)
Rabies perceived as severe 66 (86) 137(71) 203 (75) 0.01 2.44 (1.17-5.52)
Bats a source of rabies 9(12) 17(9) 26(10) 0.50 1.36 (0.51-3.43)
Dogs a source of rabies 72(94) 176(91) 284(92) 0.62 1.38 (0.47-5)
Bat contact activities More than 5 years living/working near bat roost 42(55) 62(32) 104(39) 0.0009 2.53 (1.42-4.51)
Hunting bats (to kill, not eat) 0 (0) 2(1) 2(1) 1 0.6 (0.03-13.9)
Agricultural occupation 13(17) 13(7) 26(10) 0.02 2.80 (1.13-6.94)
Being inside a bat cave 49(64) 65(34) 114(42) 0.000001 3.43(1.91-6.23)
Theoretical actions after bat bite Wash with soap and water 9(12) 12(6) 21(8) 0.13 1.99 (0.70-5.41)
Seek medical care 40(52) 112(58) 152(56) 0.41 0.78 (0.44-1.38)
Seek rabies post exposure prophylaxis 3(4) 9(5) 12(4) 1 0.83 (0.14-3.44)
Don’t know or nothing 13(17) 28(15) 41(15) 0.70 1.19 (0.53-2.56)
Other (alcohol/lime juice) 6(8) 13(7) 19(7) 0.79 1.17 (0.35-3.45)
Theoretical action after bite from rabid animal Wash with soap and water 2(3) 7(4) 9(3) 1 0.70 (0.07-3.84)
Seek medical care 56(73) 127(66) 183(68) 0.31 1.38 (0.75-2.62)
Seek rabies post exposure prophylaxis 14(18) 35(18) 49(18) 1 1.03 (0.46-2.06)
Don’t know or nothing 2(3) 15(8) 17(6) 0.16 0.32 (0.03-1.41)
Other (alcohol/lime juice) 0 (0) 0(0) 0(0) 1 2.5(0.05-127.9)
History of vaccination against rabies Post-exposure prophylaxis 12(16) 3(2) 15(6) 0.000003 11.57 (2.99-65.9)
Pre-exposure immunization 5(6) 9(5) 14(5) 0.55 (0.36-4.90)
History of animal bite? Bat 7(9) 0(0) 7(3) 0.0001 38.5(2.15-687.3)
Dog 5 (7) 5(3) 10(4) 0.15 2.6(0.58-11.66)
  1. §Mean age of exposed.