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Table 3 Mean values for anthropometric and physiological variables, before (T 0 ) and after (T 1 ) the training program in the low (N=6) and moderate (N=8) altitude study groups

From: Pilot study on the effects of a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on plasma parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome

Variable Low altitude Moderate altitude Altitude Training Altitude x Training
  T 0 T 1 T 0 T 1 η 2 P P η 2 P P η 2 P P
Body mass (kg) 88.6 ± 20.2 89.3 ± 18.4 91.8 ± 22.5 91.2 ± 22.7 0.004 0.829 0.000 0.966 0.130 0.206
BMI (kg/m2) 32.3 ± 4.2 32.6 ± 3.4 31.1 ± 5.3 30.9 ± 5.4 0.024 0.594 0.005 0.806 0.157 0.469
WC (cm) 110.2 ± 17.6 108.7 ± 16 109.2 ± 22 104.0 ± 18.4 0.013 0.701 0.159 0.158 0.077 0.338
Body fat (%) 37.8 ± 6.4 36.5 ± 8.2 37.5 ± 7.5 36.9 ± 7.0 0.000 0.990 0.158 0.160 0.021 0.621
Visceral fat (%) 16.0 ± 6.4 16.0 ± 6.3 12.2 ± 4.9 12.0 ± 5.1 0.120 0.226 0.058 0.408 0.058 0.408
Muscle mass (%) 26.7 ± 3.2 28.6 ± 5.3 27.5 ± 3.7 27.9 ± 3.6 0.000 0.974 0.190 0.119 0.100 0.271
Syst. BP (mmHg) 158.2 ± 21.8 143.7 ± 18.1 134.2 ± 20.9 138.1 ± 10.2 0.180 0.131 0.162 0.153 0.367 0.022
Diast. BP (mmHg) 88.7 ± 10.0 85.5 ± 8.1 85.9 ± 9.6 86.9 ± 6.8 0.002 0.865 0.019 0.640 0.066 0.375
Max. syst. BP (mmHg) 212.3 ± 25.9 187.5 ± 14.7 181.8 ± 33.4 184.3 ± 24.4 0.118 0.250 0.340 0.036 0.397 0.021
Resting HR (bpm) 68.2 ± 6.8 65.3 ± 7.9 75.8 ± 11.7 71.2 ± 10.9 0.148 0.174 0.146 0.177 0.009 0.750
Max. HR (bpm) 143.0 ± 15.2 144.7 ± 20.9 154.1 ± 22.6 148.9 ± 22.9 0.041 0.508 0.033 0.550 0.113 0.261
Age-adjust. max. CF (%) 92.2 ± 11.1 95.3 ± 14.2 90.3 ± 11.6 91.0 ± 9.7 0.021 0.633 0.140 0.207 0.061 0.415
Power (W=J/s) 133.3 ± 25.8 138.3 ± 36.0 189.3 ± 82.7 197.1 ± 102.6 0.162 0.173 0.064 0.404 0.003 0.851
VO 2 max (ml/min) 1754 ± 383.8 1816 ± 513.9 2335 ± 1058.4 2417 ± 1231.7 0.106 0.255 0.079 0.331 0.002 0.887
  1. Effect sizes from a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA: main effect of altitude, main effect of training and altitude-training interaction.
  2. Data are mean ± standard deviation; η2 P = effect size (partial eta squared; ‘small’ effect size, 0.01 < η2 P ≤ 0.06; ‘medium’ effect size, 0.06 < η2 P ≤ 0.14; ‘large’ effect size, η2 P > 0.14); P = significance level of the F statistic; N = number; T = time point; BMI = body mass index; WC = waist circumference; Max. syst. BP = maximum systolic blood pressure; Diast. BP = diastolic blood pressure; HR = heart rate; bpm = beats per minute; Max. = maximum; Age-adjust. = age-adjusted; CF = cardiac frequency.