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Table 1 ATP values and microbial colony-forming unit on several doorknob types in wards and clinics in different seasons

From: Assessment of contamination using an ATP bioluminescence assay on doorknobs in a university-affiliated hospital in Japan

Position in hospital Monitoring point of doorknob Type of doorknobs Mean ± SD of ATP values (RLU) Range of ATP values (RLU) Microbial CFU per 10 cm 2
<October to November, 2013>
 3rd floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 404 ± 125 230–618 0
Staff break room B* 551 ± 251 250–860 1
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 334 ± 207 157–756 1
Staff break room B* 310 ± 204 107–740 8
Linen closet A 794 ± 308 421–1342 2
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 249 ± 161 101- 544 1
Staff break room B* 417 ± 112 217–567 0
 5th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 365 ± 147 171- 642 3
 2nd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 512 ± 232 212–821 3
Staff break room C1 429 ± 194 144–788 2
 3rd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 327 ± 193 129–614 4
Staff break room C1 451 ± 172 221–734 3
 4th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 351 ± 108 156–463 4
Staff break room C1 290 ± 80 203–436 0
 5th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 271 ± 159 127–534 3
Newborn care unit C1 216 ± 62 147–296 4
 Clinic of internal medicine Western-style lavatory for men C2 2536 ± 744 1369–3490 7
Western-style lavatory for men E 927 ± 295 433–1443 22
Japanese-style lavatory for men C2 1176 ± 698 314–2511 11
Japanese-style lavatory for men E 923 ± 351 570–1515 25
Western-style lavatory for women C2 1323 ± 615 543–2291 12
Western-style lavatory for women E 364 ± 227 187–857 6
Japanese-style lavatory for women C2 2278 ± 2981 363–8886 3
Japanese-style lavatory for women E 607 ± 629 243–2004 7
Examination room for general internal medicine B* 1702 ± 455 1109–2355 4
Examination room for nephrology B* 2109 ± 1560 745–5434 30
Examination room for gastroenterology B* 10387 ± 8096 2745–26425 14
 Department of radiology Dressing room 1 for radiological tests A** 668 ± 299 331–1244 1
Dressing room 2 for radiological tests A** 356 ± 92 214–529 0
Dressing room 3 for radiological tests A** 679 ± 146 513–953 0
 Department for health examination Lavatory for men D 488 ± 157 218–705 4
Lavatory for women D 216 ± 59 119–284 2
<January to March, 2014>
 3rd floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 360 ± 246 173–843 10
Staff break room B* 668 ± 321 314–1099 2
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 4393 ± 6443 166–14174 8
Staff break room B* 719 ± 793 144–2125 5
Linen closet A 598 ± 171 327–829 0
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 203 ± 87 104–345 3
Staff break room B* 229 ± 49 200–327 10
 5th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 444 ± 290 278–1025 2
 2nd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 1495 ± 2588 194–6759 0
Staff break room C1 455 ± 436 125–1284 1
 3rd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 551 ± 295 271–1069 17
Staff break room C1 484 ± 212 238–721 0
 4th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 358 ± 119 147–467 2
Staff break room C1 301 ± 185 153–654 1
 5th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 541 ± 1056 32–2694 0
Newborn care unit C1 312 ± 136 131–492 0
 Clinic of internal medicine Western-style lavatory for men C2 2841 ± 3132 1277–9221 20
Western-style lavatory for men E 1120 ± 347 804–1725 9
Japanese-style lavatory for men C2 1736 ± 1118 855–3674 63
Japanese-style lavatory for men E 770 ± 121 604–918 6
Western-style lavatory for women C2 58605 ± 136900 1466–338031 8
Western-style lavatory for women E 4607 ± 8044 247–20327 26
Japanese-style lavatory for women C2 1844 ± 1786 758–5225 6
Japanese-style lavatory for women E 432 ± 237 276- 905 6
Examination room for general internal medicine B* 2045 ± 1228 950–3943 13
Examination room for nephrology B* 2992 ± 1110 1825–4411 19
Examination room for gastroenterology B* 2076 ± 731 1499–3494 18
 Department of radiology Dressing room 1 for radiological tests A** 911 ± 376 511–1412 5
Dressing room 2 for radiological tests A** 365 ± 214 205–792 6
Dressing room 3 for radiological tests A** 1959 ± 1982 497–5883 18
 Department for health examination Lavatory for men D 498 ± 160 335–803 14
Lavatory for women D 522 ± 197 292–853 17
<June to July, 2014>
 3rd floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 492 ± 171 301–783 5
Staff break room B* 1277 ± 516 635–2178 2
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 310 ± 48 235–372 1
Staff break room B* 526 ± 428 147–1342 6
Linen closet A 489 ± 141 327–652 0
 4th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 272 ± 117 134- 488 1
Staff break room B* 195 ± 78 70–291 9
 5th floor in southern building Staff lavatory A** 498 ± 378 108–992 0
 2nd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 997 ± 523 415–1615 6
Staff break room C1 578 ± 307 79–876 0
 3rd floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 694 ± 441 416–1566 8
Staff break room C1 452 ± 171 335–795 8
 4th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 601 ± 206 343–892 0
Staff break room C1 772 ± 681 271–2104 3
 5th floor in northern building Dirty utility room C1 233 ± 108 126–411 0
Newborn care unit C1 276 ± 90 137–401 1
 Clinic of internal medicine Western-style lavatory for men C2 1681 ± 811 907–3095 3
Western-style lavatory for men E 1307 ± 568 809–2388 1
Japanese-style lavatory for men C2 916 ± 353 500–1541 31
Japanese-style lavatory for men E 527 ± 226 84–710 12
Western-style lavatory for women C2 1454 ± 1549 531–4583 4
Western-style lavatory for women E 684 ± 549 191–1624 39
Japanese-style lavatory for women C2 989 ± 283 665–1306 7
Japanese-style lavatory for women E 415 ± 171 303–759 9
Examination room for general internal medicine B* 1938 ± 622 1333–2917 13
Examination room for nephrology B* 2428 ± 622 1464–3353 81
Examination room for gastroenterology B* 2312 ± 978 745–3410 116
 Department of radiology Dressing room 1 for radiological tests A** 1165 ± 594 585–2187 61
Dressing room 2 for radiological tests A** 572 ± 262 254–943 5
Dressing room 3 for radiological tests A** 773 ± 208 559–1156 3
 Department for health examination Lavatory for men D 999 ± 635 498–2176 0
Lavatory for women D 1386 ± 2177 261–5807 2
  1. Type of doorknobs included grip-type (A), lever-type (B), two pull-types (C1 and C2), push-type (D), and insert-type (E).
  2. SD standard deviation, RLU relative light unit, CFU colony-forming unit.
  3. * When comparing ATP values on lever-type doorknobs, there was a significant difference in contamination between the clinical examination rooms and staff break rooms in the wards.
  4. ** There was a significant difference in ATP values on grip-type doorknobs of dressing rooms for radiological tests, as compared with the same type of doorknobs of staff lavatories in the wards.