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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression analysis of individual and community level factors associated with institutional delivery

From: Multilevel analysis of individual and community level factors associated with institutional delivery in Ethiopia

Characteristics Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Fixed effects   AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Women educational level
 No education(R)   1   1
 Primary   1.39 (1.107–1.750) 1.50 (1.202–1.880)
 Secondary & above   2.75 (1.866–4.054) 3.60 (2.491–5.214)
Husband educational level
 No education(R)   1   
 Primary   1.22 (0.963–1.557)
 Secondary & above   2.10 (1.528–2.883)
Media exposure
 No exposure (R)   1   1
 Has exposure   1.33 (1.065–1.666) 1.39 (1.115–1.752)
Household wealth index
 Poorest (R)   1   1
 Poor   0.99 (0.664–1.496) 1.01 (0.673–1.497)
 Middle   0.86 (0.563–1.313) 0.75 (0.493–1.137)
 Rich   1.49 (1.029–2.183) 1.11 (0.765–1.607)
 Richest   7.05 (4.862–10.234) 1.74 (1.143–2.648)
Birth order
 1 (R)   1   1
 2–3   0.56 (0.438–0.709) 0.49 (0.385–0.622)
 4–5   0.39 (0.289–0.520) 0.38 (0.286–0.512)
 6+   0.34 (0.247–0.463) 0.33 (0.245–0.456)
ANC visit
 No visit (R)   1   1
 1 visit   1.97 (1.201–3.229) 1.89 (1.148–3.113)
 2–3 visits   2.69 (2.058–3.515) 2.66 (2.031–3.479)
 4 and above   5.09 (3.947–6.574) 4.43 (3.405–5.751)
Region
 Affar (R)    1 1
 Tigray   1.88 (0.948–3.757) 1.56 (0.796–3.072)
 Amhara   2.46 (1.243–4.872) 3.06 (1.571–5.974)
 Oromia   1.96 (1.002–3.836) 2.06 (1.065–3.995)
 Somali   1.87 (0.866–4.062) 2.92 (1.382–6.150)
 B/Gumuz   2.66 (1.289–5.525) 2.67 (1.310–5.451)
 SNNP   1.62 (0.800–3.256) 1.61 (0.806–3.218)
 Gambella   6.76 (3.341–13.698) 5.78 (2.920–11.453)
 Harari   5.96 (2.953–12.034) 5.52 (2.751–11.066)
 Addis Ababa   10.65 (5.231–21.686) 6.43 (3.173–13.019)
 Dire Dawa   9.37 (4.632–18.958) 10.19 (5.088–20.387)
Place of residence
 Rural (R)    1 1
 Urban   7.46 (5.163–10.777) 4.74 (3.196–7.039)
Distance to health facility
 Not big problem   1.66 (1.356–2.032) 1.46 (1.1792–1.805)
 Big problem (R)    1 1
Community poverty
 High (R)    1  
 Low   1.57 (1.115–2.212)
Community women’s education
 Low (R)    1 1
 High   2.66 (1.951–3.618) 1.71 (1.256–2.319)
Community media exposure
 Low (R)    1  
 High   1.42 (1.029–1.964)
Community ANC utilization
 Low (R)    1 1
 High   2.54 (1.842–3.492) 1.55 (1.132–2.127)
  1. In this table, the odds ratios were adjusted for all other variables constant in the respective models
  2. * Significant at P-value <0.05
Random effect Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Community variance (SE) 10.246* (1.020) 1.118* (0.179) 0.773* (0.134) 0.613* (0.128)
ICC (%) 75.6 25.3 19.1 15.7
PCV (%) Reference 89.1 92.4 94.1
  1. In this table, the odds ratios were adjusted for all other variables constant in the respective models
  2. * Significant at P-value <0.05
Model fitness Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Log likelihood −2285.8943 −1760.6829 −1886.9685 −1683.9758
AIC 4575.789 3557.366 3809.937 3425.952
  1. In this table, the odds ratios were adjusted for all other variables constant in the respective models
  2. * Significant at P-value <0.05