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Table 1 Temperature values of marine mammals measured by thermography

From: Thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals

  Patagonian sea lion Harbour seal Pacific walrus Bottlenose dolphin Beluga whale
Rectal 37.07 ± 0.058 36.22 ± 0.383 36.75 ± 0.369 35.68 ± 0.184
Ears 22.81 ± 6.030   
Eyes      
 Overall 10 min 31.13 ± 1.706 0.873* 10 min 32.27 ± 0.901 5 min 29.93 ± 1.015 0.599* 1 min 32.93 ± 1.053 0.801* 1 min 32.14 ± 0.847 0.607*
 Males 31.38 ± 1.518 32.89 ± 0.352 = = x
 Females 29.56 ± 1.448 31.49 ± 0.756 = = x
 Pups 22.29 ± 2.344 21.73 ± 1.972 x x x
 Adults 28.55 ± 2.885 27.07 ± 5.434 x x x
Vibrissal area      
 Overall 26.23 ± 4.220 23.54 ± 6.764 23.75 ± 3.739   
 Males 27.37 ± 3.641 29.91 ± 4.779 =   
 Females 24.29 ± 2.778 18.04 ± 1.757 =   
 Pups 18.94 ± 1.323 18.11 ± 1.445 x   
 Adults 26.20 ± 3.649 25.32 ± 6.879 x   
Mouth 30.89 ± 3.191   
Blowhole
 Voluntary
  Perpendicular     36.86 ± 0.297 0.997* 34.73 ± 0.665 0.994*
  Inclined     33.5 ± 2.246 33.21 ± 1.537
 On demand
  Perpendicular     33.92 ± 1.256 0.448* 31.82 ± 0.670 0.876*
  Inclined     30.06 ± 2.098 28.76 ± 1.687
  1. Maximum temperatures (mean ± standard deviation) of each analysed anatomical region of the five species of marine mammals, displayed in Celsius degrees (°C). [Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)]
  2. –: Not enough valuable thermal measurements were collected
  3. =: Differences were found not to be significant using a Kruskal–Wallis test (p < 0.05)
  4. x: Not enough individuals of different gender or age were studied to estimate these parameters
  5. * Correlation with rectal temperature