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Table 4 Multinomial logistic regression analyses of trigger factors of MA and MoA vs. TTH (base category) adjusted with sociodemographic variables, anxiety and depressive symptoms (HADS)

From: Trigger factors in primary headaches subtypes: a cross-sectional study from a tertiary centre in Greece

Disorder MA MoA MA MoA
Crude OR (95 %CI) Crude OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI)
Trigger factors
Oversleep 3.97 (1.26–12.49)* 0.94 (0.28–3.23) 4.65 (1.32–16.33)* 1.00 (0.27–3.73)
Premenstrual period 4.83 (1.54–15.17)** 1.76 (0.55–5.61) 5.02 (1.26–19.98)* 2.18 (0.54–8.72)
Stressful life event 3.25 (0.55–19.12) 0.44 (0.18–1.50) 3.60 (0.55–23.41) 0.50 (0.13–1.97)
Hot/cold weather 2.89 (1.04–8.06)* 0.77 (0.30–2.45) 4.92 (1.31–18.57)* 0.81 (0.22–2.98)
Relaxation after stress 1.41 (0.52–3.79) 0.37 (0.13–1.09) 1.02 (0.31–3.32) 0.24 (0.07–0.89)
Menstruation 2.08 (0.78–5.53) 0.63 (0.24–1.65) 1.68 (0.47–5.95) 0.57 (0.16–2.00)
Wind 3.84 (1.12–13.14)* 1.23 (0.33–4.53) 10.26 (1.96–53.73)** 2.71 (0.52–14.08)
Intense emotions 1.62 (0.48–5.27) 0.45 (0.16–1.26) 1.38 (0.36–5.23) 0.48 (0.14–1.62)
Shining 7.59 (0.90–63.80) 2.51 (0.27–23.68) 18.21 (1.47–225.24)* 2.25 (0.18–28.86)
Hunger 4.25 (1.25–14.50)* 2.81 (0.83–9.56) 4.97 (1.24–19.87)* 3.11 (0.79–12.30)
Bright sunlight 3.46 (1.01–11.90)* 1.23 (0.33–4.53) 4.81 (1.21–19.22)* 1.35 (0.37–5.61)
Alcohol 3.84 (1.12–13.14)* 2.29 (0.67–7.90) 5.61 (1.42–22.11)* 2.52 (0.66–9.67)
Cigarette smoke 3.11 (0.90–10.75) 1.05 (0.28–3.97) 3.55 (0.84–15.00) 1.36 (0.30–6.15)
Skipping meals 3.46 (1.01–11.90)* 2.81 (0.83–9.56) 3.83 (0.98–15.06) 2.40 (0.63–9.18)
Rain 3.49 (0.87–13.62) 1.46 (0.45–6.17) 3.66 (0.77–17.33) 1.20 (0.25–5.84)
Noise 1.96 (0.70–5.46) 0.76 (0.26–2.21) 2.03 (0.64–6.43) 0.81 (0.25–2.64)
Air pollution 1.18 (0.37–3.73) 0.34 (0.09–1.33) 0.96 (0.27–3.46) 0.27 (0.06–1.20)
Coffee deprivation 1.29 (0.45–3.68) 0.51 (0.17–1.57) 1.29 (0.40–4.15) 0.53 (0.15–1.80)
High altitude 4.63 (0.52–40.77) 1.20 (0.10–13.87) 4.15 (0.38–45.44) 1.18 (0.08–17.14)
Odors 2.38 (0.85–6.62) 1.42 (0.51–3.90) 2.93 (0.89–9.65) 1.44 (0.45–4.63)
Sexual activity 4.63 (0.52–40.77) 1.84 (0.18–18.61) 5.90 (0.54–64.27) 1.33 (0.11–15.85)
Weather changes 1.47 (0.56–3.87) 0.72 (0.28–1.85) 1.66 (0.53–5.19) 0.75 (0.24–2.30)
Sleep hours changes 2.12 (0.74–6.11) 1.27 (0.44–3.67) 2.18 (0.69–6.86) 1.25 (0.40–3.89)
Physical activities 0.40 (0.10–1.56) 0.44 (0.12–1.59) 0.22 (0.07–1.06) 0.33 (0.07–1.46)
Fatigue 0.91 (0.34–2.38) 0.59 (0.23–1.51) 0.71 (0.23–2.18) 0.46 (0.15–1.36)
Traveling 1.90 (0.63–5.77) 1.72 (0.58–5.12) 2.21 (0.67–7.32) 2.02 (0.62–6.56)
Vegetables 1.40 (0.24–8.25) 2.28 (0.44–11.81) 1.27 (0.17–9.28) 1.87 (0.29–12.14)
Sleep deprivation 1.47 (0.56–3.87) 1.11 (0.43–2.82) 1.93 (0.64–5.83) 1.62 (0.55–4.76)
Fatty meals 1.80 (0.32–10.04) 0.89 (0.14–5.66) 1.73 (0.21–14.32) 0.52 (0.06–4.60)
Weight lift 0.64 (0.16–2.45) 0.55 (0.14–2.09) 0.52 (0.13–2.60) 0.48 (0.11–2.14)
Chocolate 1.29 (0.38–4.37) 0.94 (0.28–3.23) 0.95 (0.25–3.68) 0.52 (0.13–2.02)
Coffee 1.29 (0.38–4.37) 0.94 (0.28–3.23) 0.87 (0.21–3.61) 0.60 (0.14–2.53)
Dairy products 1.43 (0.32–6.26) 0.99 (0.22–4.51) 1.18 (0.24–5.79) 0.80 (0.15–4.19)
Rest 0.83 (0.20–3.42) 0.71 (0.18–2.92) 0.61 (0.12–3.18) 0.59 (0.11–3.02)
Cold water/ice cream 1.03 (0.26–4.03) 1.05 (0.26–4.04) 0.86 (0.17–4.30) 0.52 (0.11–2.45)
  1. MA, MoA, TTH denote migraine with aura, migraine without aura and tension-type headache respectively
  2. Sociodemographic variables: sex, age group, marital status, educational level, employment status
  3. Level of significance: * <0.05 and ** <0.01
  4. HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Crude OR crude odds ratios, Adjusted OR odds ratios adjusted for sociodemographic variables, anxiety and depressive symptoms, CI confidence Interval