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Table 3 Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum for acoustic parameters extracted from giraffe humming vocalizations

From: Nocturnal “humming” vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication

Acoustic parameter Berlin Tierpark Copenhagen Zoo Vienna Zoo
N hums = 34 N hums = 22 N hums = 9
± Min Max ± Min Max ± Min Max
F0 start (Hz) 82.54 ± 29.32 40.0 145.02 109.8 ± 27.54 40.01 155.03 100.57 ± 40.81 45.01 185.02
F0 mid (Hz) 76.48 ± 18.81 45.01 180.04 110.02 ± 27.04 70.01 180.04 93.35 ± 29.05 50.01 130.01
F0 end (Hz) 73.9 ± 19.41 40.01 185.04 110.7 ± 34.21 65.01 185.04 87.23 ± 35.98 50.01 165.02
F0 min (Hz) 63.98 ± 18.23 35.01 105.02 83.88 ± 20.64 40.01 125.03 77.23 ± 27.4 40.01 125.01
F0 max (Hz) 94.69 ± 23.44 55.01 150.02 143.67 ± 29.61 85.02 195.04 116.68 ± 39.05 60.01 185.02
F0 range (Hz) 30.71 ± 14.59 10.0 76.01 59.79 ± 29.83 15.0 125.03 39.45 ± 21.57 10.0 80.01
F0 mean (Hz) 79.25 ± 18.52 48.53 120.36 110.26 ± 22.07 76.13 160.12 95.6 ± 31.64 52.71 144.69
F0 median (Hz) 78.98 ± 18.67 50.01 116.01 108.77 ± 22.56 75.02 160.03 94.18 ± 30.26 55.01 140.01
Duration (s) 1.42 ± 1.04 0.41 4.17 0.95 ± 0.36 0.45 1.74 1.52 ± 0.87 0.42 3.21