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Table 1 Generalisability of the source review

From: Development of the Workplace Health Savings Calculator: a practical tool to measure economic impact from reduced absenteeism and staff turnover in workplace health promotion

Parameters Australia United Kingdom (UK) Comments/assumptions
SME proportion 99.7 % [42] 99.9 % [43, 45] UK effectiveness estimates in report derived from similarly high proportion of SMEs to Australia*
Industry types 85 % of SMEs operate in the service sectors (construction (14 %), professional/scientific/technical (12 %), retail trade (10 %) and others including education, accommodation, transport, utilities), with the remaining in agriculture/forestry and fishing (8 %), manufacturing (6 %) and mining (1 %) [24] Data from 9 industries: manufacturing, finance, public service, utilities, business services, construction/engineering, retail, education, others [21] Good range of industry types relevant to Australian industry. Construction industry reported effectiveness for occupational health and safety (OH&S) interventions only
Aging population In 2005, median age 36.6 years [46]
By 2050, median age 45 [47]
1 in 4 Australians aged 65 years or over by 2056 [48]
In 2005 median age 39 years [46]
By 2050, median age 43 [47]
Between 1971 and 2006, those aged 65 years increased by 31 % [21]
Similar population aging demographics
Aging workforce By 2050, 26 % over 65 years [49] By 2024, 50 % over 50 years [50]
By 2050, 24 % over 65 years [49]
Similar workforce demographics
Drivers Human capital**, government initiative, OH&S [51] Government, social responsibility, rising cost of human capital [21] Similar implementation drivers
Intervention targets SNAPS (i.e.: smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity, stress) behavioural and lifestyle health risks [23] 51 % (28/55) lifestyle (i.e.: smoking cessation, healthy diet and subsidised exercise programmes) 58 % (32/55) OH&S [21] Lifestyle interventions focus on similar behaviour change targets to those encouraged in Australia and are also those most commonly seen in research of behaviour modification health interventions in the workplace
  1. Source review: PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP was commissioned by the Health Work Wellbeing Executive to undertake a review of the business case for workplace health, which included a review of 55 case studies from United Kingdom organisations [21]
  2. * There were seven SMEs (small to medium enterprises) of the 55 case studies in the source review; two measured absenteeism, one measured staff retention, three measured both absenteeism and staff retention, and one measured absenteeism (from OH&S interventions only). In their reported benefits, all SMEs saw decreased absenteeism and improved retention
  3. ** Human capital: drivers include talent attraction, retention and ideas of broader corporate social responsibility. This approach also seeks to improve productivity and reduce workforce absenteeism [51]