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Table 4 Logistic regression examining media and marketing factors associated with Waterpipe ever use (n = 106)

From: Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors

Media marketing factors Study participants Waterpipe ever use Crude odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) Adjusted odds ratioϯ (95 % confidence interval)
N = 106
N (%)
Yes N = 62
N (%)
No N = 44
N (%)
Waterpipe use in television/films*
 Seen 66 (62) 44 (71) 22 (50) 2.4 (1.1–5.5) 2.4 (1.1–5.7)
 Not seen (reference) 40 (38) 18 (29) 22 (50)   
Advertisements on waterpipe products
 Seen 91 (86) 55 (89) 36 (82) 1.7 (0.6–5.2) 1.4 (0.4–4.7)
 Not seen (reference) 15 (14) 7 (11) 8 (18)   
Waterpipe products for sale in public
 Seen 60 (57) 39 (63) 21 (48) 1.8 (0.8–4.0) 1.8 (0.8–4.1)
 Not seen (reference) 46 (43) 23 (37) 23 (52)   
Waterpipe use in tv/films perceived unhealthy*
 No 31 (29) 38 (61) 7 (16) 3.3 (1.3–8.7) 3.2 (1.2–8.9)
 Yes (reference) 75 (71) 24 (39) 37 (84)   
Waterpipe use in tv/films perceived cool
 Yes 85 (80) 49 (79) 36 (82) 0.8 (0.3–2.2) 0.9 (0.3–2.7)
 No (reference) 21 (20) 13 (21) 8 (18)   
  1. * p < 0.05, were p values for the confidence interval
  2. ϯAdjusted for age and gender