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Table 5 Logistic regression examining perceptions of harm associated with Waterpipe ever use (n = 106)

From: Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors

Harm perception Study participants Waterpipe ever use Crude odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) Adjusted odds ratioϯ (95 % confidence interval)
N = 106
N (%)
Yes N = 62
N (%)
No N = 44
N (%)
Do you consider waterpipe smoking as a form of tobacco use?
 No 49 (46) 29 (47) 20 (45) 1.5 (0.5–2.3) 1.2 (0.5–2.7)
 Yes (reference) 57 (54) 33 (53) 24 (55)   
Is second hand waterpipe smoking harmful?
 No 66 (62) 39 (63) 27 (61) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 1.3 (0.5–2.9)
 Yes (reference) 40 (38) 23 (37) 17 (39)   
There is no risk at all smoking waterpipe for the first few years
 Yes 42 (40) 26 (42) 16 (36) 1.3 (0.5–2.8) 1.1 (0.1–2.4)
 No (reference) 64 (60) 36 (58) 28 (64)   
Every puff of waterpipe smoke causes a bit of harm
 No 68 (64) 41 (66) 27 (61) 1.2 (0.6–2.7) 1.2 (0.5–2.8)
 Yes (reference) 38 (36) 21 (34) 17 (39)   
Smoking waterpipe for an hour daily is harmful
 No 37 (35) 22 (36) 15 (34) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
 Yes (reference) 69 (65) 40 (64) 29 (66)   
Waterpipe smoking makes users cool and fit*
 Yes 44 (42) 31 (50) 15 (34) 1.9 (0.9–4.3) 2.6 (1.1–6.4)
 No (reference) 62 (58) 31 (50) 29 (66)   
  1. * p < 0.05, were p values for the confidence interval
  2. ϯAdjusted for age and gender