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Table 6 Logistic regression examining peer pressure factors associated with Waterpipe ever use (n = 106)

From: Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors

Peer pressure Study participants Waterpipe ever use Crude odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) Adjusted odds ratioϯ (95 % confidence interval)
N = 106
N (%)
Yes N = 62
N (%)
No N = 44
N (%)
Have friends who smoke waterpipe regularly*
 Yes 21 (20) 19 (31) 3 (7) 6.1 (1.7–22.0) 8.3 (2.1–31.2)
 No (reference) 84 (80) 43 (69) 41 (93)   
Waterpipe users have more friends
 Yes 43 (41) 28 (45) 15 (34) 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 2.1 (0.8–4.8)
 No (reference) 63 (59) 34 (55) 29 (66)   
If your friends invite will you smoke waterpipe?*
 Yes 61 (57) 42 (68) 19 (43) 2.8 (1.2–6.4) 2.8 (1.2–6.7)
 No (reference) 45 (43) 20 (32) 25 (57)   
  1. * p < 0.05, were p values for the confidence interval
  2. ϯAdjusted for age and gender