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Table 2 Associations between the provision of EOL care and agency characteristics

From: Factors related to the provision of home-based end-of-life care among home-care nursing, home help, and care management agencies in Japan

  Homecare nurse, n = 371 Home helper, n = 274 Care manager, n = 452
Provision of EOL Care Provision of EOL Care Provision of EOL Care
No (n = 140) Yes (n = 231) p-value No (n = 152) Yes (n = 122) p-value No (n = 198) Yes (n = 54) p-value
Agency characteristics
 Number of staff (FTE) 3.1 (2.6–4.0) 4.5 (3.2–6.5) <0.001a 4.8 (3.0–9.7) 8.4 (4.0–14.6) 0.001a 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 2.6 (2.0–4.0) <0.001a
 Nursing staff
  Yes        70 (35.4) 114 (44.7) 0.044b
  No        128 (64.7) 141 (55.3)  
 Number of clients/1 month 36.0 (20.0–56.0) 52.0 (34.0–88.0) <0.001a 35.0 (21.0–64.0) 53.0 (31.0–80.0) 0.001a 42.0 (23.0–74.0) 68.5 (39.0–108.5) <0.001a
Agency ownership
 Social welfare corporation 19 (13.8) 20 (8.7) 0.079b 42 (27.6) 30 (24.8) 0.574b 53 (26.8) 80 (31.8) 0.303b
 Profit corporation 38 (27.5) 64 (27.8)   77 (50.7) 67 (55.4)   81(40.9) 85 (33.7)  
 Healthcare corporation 56 (40.6) 80 (34.8)   19 (12.5) 10 (8.3)   33 (16.7) 52 (20.6)  
 Others 25 (18.1) 66 (28.7)   14 (9.2) 14 (11.6)   31 (15.7) 35 (13.9)  
Other healthcare faclity owned by the same organization
 Care management agency
  Yes 84 (60.0) 151 (65.4) 0.298b 101 (72.7) 95 (81.2) 0.108b    
  No 56 (40.0) 80 (34.6)   38 (27.3) 22 (18.8)     
 Homecare nursing agency
  Yes     21 (15.1) 24 (20.5) 0.258b 24 (13.7) 47 (21.3) 0.052b
  No     118 (84.9) 93 (79.5)   151 (86.3) 174 (78.7)  
 Home help agency
  Yes 43 (30.7) 72 (31.2) 0.927b     86 (49.1) 115 (52.0) 0.567b
  No 97 (69.3) 159 (68.8)      89 (50.9) 106 (48.0)  
 Hospital
  Yes 36 (25.7) 61 (26.4) 0.883b 8 (5.8) 5 (4.3) 0.591b 23 (13.1) 30 (13.6) 0.900b
  No 104 (74.3) 170 (73.6)   131 (94.2) 112 (95.7)   152 (86.9) 191 (86.4)  
 Non-bed clinic
  Yes 19 (13.6) 25 (10.8) 0.427b 6 (4.3) 4 (3.4) 0.712b 7 (4.0) 15 (6.8) 0.229b
  No 121 (86.4) 206 (89.2)   133 (95.7) 113 (96.6)   168 (96.0) 206 (93.2)  
 Number of collaborating HN agencies        2.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (1.0–4.0) <0.001a
 Number of collaborating HH agencies        4.0 (2.0–7.0) 6.0 (4.0–10.0) <0.001a
 Number of collaborating CM agencies 7.0 (3.0–12.0) 13.0 (7.0–20.0) <0.001a 6.0 (3.0–10.0) 6.0 (4.0–12.0) 0.105a    
 Number of collaborating healthcare faclities 11.0 (6.0–20.0) 16.0 (9.0–28.0) <0.001a       
Additional reimbursement for intensive service
 By LTCI
  Yes 127 (92.0) 227 (99.1) <0.001b 29 (19.7) 36 (30.8) 0.039b 3 (1.6) 11 (4.5) 0.087b
  No 11 (8.0) 2 (0.9)   118 (80.3) 81 (69.2)   189 (98.4) 236 (95.6)  
 By healthcare insurance
  Yes 109 (80.7) 217 (94.4) <0.001b       
  No 26 (19.3) 13 (5.7)        
Accepting end-of-life clients     59 (39.1) 82 (68.3) <0.001b    
    92 (60.9) 38 (31.7)     
 Homecare nurse and home helper could visit client together
  Yes 93 (67.9) 171 (76.7) 0.067b 86 (58.9) 69 (57.0) 0.757b 97 (52.7) 170 (67.5) 0.002b
  No 44 (32.1) 52 (23.3)   60 (41.1) 52 (43.0)   87 (47.3) 82 (32.5)  
  1. The figures of each item were not equal to the total number of the participants due to missing values; percentages for each item were calculated after excluding missing values
  2. aMann–Whitney U test
  3. bChi square tests