Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of hospitalization evidence

From: Clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Canada: a systematic review

References Geographic region (study years) Patients Arms or cohorts Hospitalization, # or  % patients # of hospital visits Mean annual hospital # visits/patient
Tsai et al. [45] US, Canada ≥55 year, stable COPD Underweight (BMI <18.5, n = 50)    Prior year 0 visits
Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9, n = 148)    Prior year 0 visits
Overweight (BMI 25–29.9, n = 105)    Prior year 0 visits
Obese (BMI ≥ 30, n = 92)    Prior year 0 visits
Rowe et al. [34] US, Canada ≥55 year, stable COPD Canadian patients (n = 63)    Prior year 0 visits
Johnston et al. [32] Hamilton, Ontario (Dec 2006–Jan 2007) ≥40 year, COPD of mixed severity GOLD stratum 0 (n = 39)   1 Prior year 1.3 visits
GOLD stratum 1 and 2 (n = 31)   3 Prior year 1.2 visits
GOLD stratum 3 and 4 (n = 44)   7 Prior year 1.5 visits
Labrecque et al. [29] Montreal (2004) 40–75 years, stable COPD Self-management (n = 57)    Prior year 0.7 visits
Post index 0.3 visits
Usual care (n = 45)    Prior year 0.5 visits
Post index 0.5 visits
Moullec et al. [28] Montreal (2004–2006) Montreal hospital patients Integrated care (n = 96) Prior year 96
Post-index 38
  Prior year 1.3 visits
Post index 0.7 visits
Usual care (n = 93) Prior year 69
Post-index 55
  Prior year 1.5 visits
Post-index 1.3 visits
Ohinmaa et al. [46] Alberta Adult from Canadian Community Health Survey 20–44 years    0 visits
45–64 years    3.45 visits
>65 years    5.19 visits
Blais et al. [41] Quebec (Feb 2003–Jan 2007) ≥40 years Budesonide/formoterol (n = 1131) 8.6 % 130 0.11 visits
Propionate/salmeterol (n = 1131) 12.4 % 233 0.21 visits
FitzGerald et al. [43] Canada (1 year study) ≥40 year, All patients (n = 609) 75 112 0.2 visits
Patients with exacerbations (n = 278)   75 1.5 visits
Chapman et al. [1], Wouters et al. [37] Canada (1 year study) Diagnosed/undiagnosed COPD patients All patients (n = 401) Prior year 14 %   0.32 visits (0 visits/year 1999–2005)
Wong et al. [47] Vancouver, British Columbia (winter 2006–2007) Admitted St. Paul’s Hospital with AECOPD diagnosis Entire population (n = 109)    3.3 visits (6-month readmission rate)
Beaulieu et al. [48]   Moderate-severe COPD Self-administered prescription (n = 46)    0.3 visits (prior 6-months)
Control (n = 43)    0.5 visits (prior 6-months)
Sin et al. [38] (1992–1997) age ≥65 years, discharged diagnosis of COPD All Patients (n = 22,620) 5654 (25 % repeat hospitalization)   
Chen et al. [50] (First admission 1999–2000) COPD In-patients, ≥40 years Entire population (n = 108,726) 49.1 % rehospitalization   
Huiart et al. [51] (1990–1997, 1st COPD treatment) ≥55 years, first treatment of COPD All (n = 5648) 1027 2326 101.4 visits/1000 PY
Female (n = 2606) 399 812 74.3 visits/1000 PY
Male (n = 3042) 673 1514 126.1 visits/1000 PY
Sedeno et al. [21]   COPD patients Usual care (n = 81) 36.3 %   
Self-management group (n = 85) 17.2 %   
Chen et al. [76]   General population, broad (B) and narrow (N) defined cases for COPD hospitalization All (n = 6,099,756) B = 257,604, N = 85,189   B = 42.2, N = 14.0/1000 PY
Age 55–59 (n = 1,332,254) B = 16,671, N = 5129   B = 12.5, N = 3.8/1000 PY
Age 60–64 (n = 1,207,873) B = 26,904, N = 8579   B = 22.3, N = 7.1/1000 PY
Age 65–69 (n = 1,121,508) B = 40,823, N = 13,404   B = 36.4, N = 12.0/1000 PY
Age 70–74 (n = 963,007) B = 51,782, N = 17,310   B = 53.8, N = 18.0/1000 PY
Age 75–79 (n = 683,520) B = 49,788, N = 16,983   B = 72.8, N = 24.8/1000 PY
Age 80–84 (n = 450,458) B = 40,666, N = 13,844   B = 90.3, N = 30.7/1000 PY
Age 85–89 (n = 227,533) B = 21,676, N = 7,046   B = 95.3, N = 31.0/1000 PY
Age 90+ (n = 113,603) B = 9294, N = 2894   B = 81.8, N = 25.5/1000 PY
Tu et al. [78]   Active smoking adults, ≥15 years of age     167 visits (predicted, linear regression)
Curkendall et al. [79] (1997–2000) ≥40 years, COPD diagnosed with ≥2 bronchodilators within 6-months COPD (n = 11,493)    598.36/1000 PY
CV related; 109.5/1000 PY
Controls (n = 22,986)    221.23/1000 PY
CV related; 44.66/1,000 PY
Mittmann et al. [3] Canada Moderate and severe COPD exacerbations All exacerbations (n = 609)   151  
Moderate exacerbation   140  
Severe exacerbation   151  
Mancini et al. [53]   COPD patients Coronary revascularization (n = 946) Prior year 2.6–5.9 %   
Without MI (n = 18,774) Prior year 1.6–7.3 %   
Gonzalez et al. [80]   >66 years, received ≥3 respiratory medications Women (n = 19,260) Prior year 2.7 %   
Men (n = 23,893) Prior year 2.6 %   
Macie et al. [81] Manitoba (1997–2000) Drug claim for obstructive airways disease All recipients (n = 6,041) 3.2 %   
Control (n = 60,410) 5.2 %   
Ernst et al. [82]   Hospitalized with Pneumonia Case (n = 23,942) 14.5 %   
Control (n = 95,768) 3.6 %   
Chan et al. [20]   COPD Diagnosis Tiotropium (n = 608) 8.4 %   
Placebo (n = 305) 8.2 %   
Gershon et al. [42] Ontario (2003–2007) ≥66 years Long-acting anticholinergic (n = 28,563) 33.3 %   
Long-acting beta-agonist (n = 17,840) 30.7 %   
Monfared et al. [83] (1990–1996) Elderly COPD patients RAMQ database (n = 1233) 32.7 %   
MED-ECHO database (n = 1206) 32.0 %   
Polisena et al. [17] Calgary (1998–2009) ≥60 years (mean age) Telephone support 32–46 %   
Usual Care 51–66 %   
Goodridge et al. [52] (Deceased in 2004) COPD or lung cancer death All patients (n = 1098) 80.4 %   
Aaron et al. [56] Canada (1995–2004) COPD patients Tiotropium + Plac (n = 156) 62   
Tiotropium + Salmeterol (n = 148) 48   
Tiotropium + Fluticasone-Salmeterol (n = 145) 41   
Benayoun et al. [84] (1996–1997) >45 years, initiating treatment with combination inhaler Combined Bronchodilator (n = 641) Prior year 202   
Double-users (n = 411) Prior year 279   
Stephenson et al. [40] Ontario (2003–2010) >66 years, Concomitant dementia and COPD ChEI users (n = 7166) Prior year 469   
ChEI non-users (n = 7166) Prior year 403   
Bourbeau et al. [85]   ≥55 years, without asthma initiating COPD treatment Case (n = 843) Current ICS use 275, past user 141   
Control (n = 11,030) Current ICS use 2994, past user 1357   
Beauchesne et al. [77] (1995–2004) COPD patients Home management (n = 152)   100  
Bourbeau et al. [44]   Advanced COPD, ≥1 hospitalization for exacerbation in last year Usual care (n = 95)   Prior, 152
Year 1, 118
 
Self-management care (n = 96)   Prior year, 158
Year 1, 71
 
Disano et al. [86] (2003–2006) Ambulatory care COPD Low SES   381a  
Average SES   210a  
High SES   129a  
Keenan et al. [87] London COPD with exacerbation at emergency room All patients (n = 25)   355 (over 3 years 2 months)  
Dormuth et al. [60] British Columbia ≥45 years, 2.5-year period after public coverage Predicted use   42,735  
Observed use   44,007  
  1. PY patient years
  2. aRates per 100,000 people