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Table 5 Summary of average annual patient level direct costs evidence (CAN$)

From: Clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Canada: a systematic review

References (study period) Categories Patient group Patient perspective inflated cost/patient Societal perspective inflated cost/patient
Chapman et al. [1] (12 months) All All $2444.17 $3910.39
Gender Male $1941.09 $2817.88
Female $2926.30 $4956.03
Smoking status Former smokers $3348.67 $4702.55
Current smokers $1357.06 $2958.41
Comorbidities Yes $2506.92 $4568.22
No $2370.68 $3127.96
Education status Less educated $3043.48 $4540.89
More educated $2142.85 $3638.46
Wouters et al. [37] (1 year) All All $2378.59 $6693.37
Gender Male NR $2741.62
Female NR $4254.24
Smoking status Former smokers NR $4575.67
Current smokers NR $2877.75
Education status Less educated NR $4418.73
Well educated NR $3539.53
Mittmann et al. [3] (52 weeks) Moderate exacerbation ITT population $718.48 NR
Clinically evaluable population $847.38 NR
Severe exacerbation ITT population 10,712.14 NR
Clinically evaluable population 11,156.01 NR
Maleki-Yazdi et al. [59] (Oct 2009 and Jan 2010) All All $4391.16 NR
Acute exacerbation Clinically evaluable population $3214.75 NR
  1. ITT intention to treat, NR not reported