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Table 6 Summary of average annual population level direct costs evidence (CAN$)

From: Clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Canada: a systematic review

References (study period) Population Resource Inflated 2012 CAN$
Dormuth et al. [60] (Jul 2007–Dec 2009) Residents of British Columbia, 45+ years old Medication (inhaled anticholinergic) $26,298,835.28 (ministry paid: $13,276,279.45, out of pocket: $13,022,555.82)
Any hospital admission $310,494,472.10
Emergency COPD admission $59,456,281.50
Mittmann et al. [3] (52 weeks) Mean age of 68.6 years Moderate exacerbation $182.7–$254.44 million
Severe exacerbation $469.64–$642.26 million