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Table 2 Binary logistic regression for estimating odds ratio and 95 % confidence interval for assessing HR-QoL (with ‘no problem’ in five domains as the reference category) by selected factors

From: Assessment of health-related quality of life of Bangladeshi patients with type 2 diabetes using the EQ-5D: a cross-sectional study

Independent variable β Sig. Odds ratio 95 % CI for EXP (β)
Lower Upper
a. Dependent variable: mobility
 Age (years) 0.057 0.0001 1.059 1.034 1.085
 Gender
  Male Reference     
  Female 1.640 0.007 5.156 1.564 16.997
 Monthly income (Tk)
 High-income group Reference     
 Upper-middle-income group 1.007 0.022 2.738 1.160 6.463
 Lower-middle-income group 0.371 0.393 1.449 0.619 3.393
 Low-income group 1.146 0.210 3.145 0.523 18.90
HbA1c % 0.120 0.06 1.128 0.997 1.276
b. Dependent variable: self-care
 Age (years) 0.039 0.002 1.039 1.014 1.065
 Family history of diabetes
  No Reference     
  Yes −0.867 0.001 0.420 0.250 0.706
  Don’t know 0.257 0.669 1.293 0.398 4.199
 Duration (years) of diabetes 0.042 0.021 1.043 1.006 1.082
c. Dependent variable: usual activity
 Gender
  Male Reference     
  Female 1.322 0.022 3.751 1.207 11.658
 Monthly income (Tk)
  High-income group Reference     
  Upper-middle-income group 0.974 0.024 2.648 1.136 6.173
  Lower-middle-income group 0.384 0.371 1.469 0.633 3.41
  Low-income group 0.337 0.696 1.401 0.258 7.609
 Family history of diabetes
  No Reference     
  Yes −0.767 0.002 0.464 0.288 0.747
  Don’t know 0.618 0.335 1.855 0.528 6.520
d. Dependent variable: pain
 Age (years) 0.050 0.0001 1.051 1.025 1.079
 Monthly income (Tk)
  High-income group Reference     
  Upper-middle-income group 1.034 0.015 2.811 1.227 6.441
  Lower-middle-income group 0.946 0.023 2.576 1.138 5.832
  Low-income group 0.188 0.836 1.207 0.205 7.115
e. Dependent variable: anxiety
 Habitat      
  Urban Reference     
  Rural −0.588 0.042 0.555 0.315 0.978
  Semi-urban 20.449 0.999 7.60 0.0001 <0.001
 Level of education      
  Illiterate Reference     
  Primary to 8th grade −0.577 0.085 0.562 0.291 1.082
  SSC to HSC −0.446 0.228 0.640 0.310 1.321
  Graduate and postgraduate −0.960 0.028 0.383 0.162 0.902
 HbA1c % 0.128 0.06 1.136 0.996 1.296
  1. β for standardized regression coefficient. Level of practice was taken as a dependent variable whereas other variables were taken as independent variables
  2. HR-QoL health-related quality of life