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Table 1 Summary of literature review on mucosal melanoma

From: Primary malignant mucosal melanoma of the upper lip: a case report and review of the literature

SN Author/date Evidence type Sample size Age/sex Place of study Relevant finding
1. Ullah et al. (2010) Case report 1 55 years/M Egypt Therapeutic neck dissection is to be done in cases of palpable lymph nodes but there is disagreement over neck dissection be done in absence of clinically palpable nodes
2. Lourenco et al. (2009) Case series 35 South America Most cases (71.42 %) were found in hard palate and upper alveolar ridge
3. Hajar-Serviansky et al. (2012) Case report 1 40 years/M Mexico After complete removal, 10–20 % regional relapses have been reported with a 10–25 % 5 years survival rate
4 Sta`rek et al. (2006) Pilot study 2 The presence of microscopic metastatic focus in the sentinel lymph node was associated with an early hematogenous dissemination. Therefore, sentinel lymph node biopsy, which represents a potentially efficient staging tool, warrants further investigation
5. Govindarajan et al. (2003) Prospective study on nude mice Activation of MAP kinase signaling may be an important pathway involved in melanoma transformation. Inhibition of MAP kinase signaling may be useful in the prevention and treatment of melanoma
6. Ali and Ali (2007) Review article c-kit signaling is believed to play a role in tumorigenesis
7 Buery et al. (2011) Prospective study 18 RAS is intensely expressed in both in situ and invasive OMMs
8 Goldinger et al. (2013) Review article Switzerland KIT mutations are found at low frequencies (≤10 %) in melanomas arising from mucosal or acral lentiginous surfaces
9. Flaherty et al. (2012)      The combination of the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF V600 melanoma, represents one strategy for delaying the emergence of this resistance mechanism (median duration of response for combination therapy 10.5 vs 5.6 months for dabrafenib monotherapy)
10. Lian and Guo (2014) Review article    China Monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint proteins (include Ipilimumab and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) have elicited long-lasting anti-cancer response in metastatic melanoma, randomized clinical trials on checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic MM are limited
11. Garzino-Demo et al. (2004) Case series 10 Italy Oral mucosal melanomas are highly malignant tumors with the tendency to metastasize or locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumors of the oral cavity
12. Manolidis and Donald (1997) Retrospectives study and review 14 USA 30 reported cases of mucosal melanoma of lip till 1997
13. Tacastacas et al. (2014) Review article A review of literature reports that 14 % of mucosal melanomas harbor activating c-KIT mutations
14. Wang et al. (2012) Retrospective study 61 China Elective node dissection and adjuvant biochemotherapy offer no additional advantage in increasing the patient survival rate for patients with clinical stage N0 OMM
15. Hodi et al. (2010) Clinical trial 676 13 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa Ipilimumab improved overall survival in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma
16. Mary E. Keir et al. (2008) Prospective study USA The interaction of PD-1 with its two ligands, B7-H1 and B7-DC (PD-L1 and PD-L2), occurs predominantly in peripheral tissues including the tumor microenvironment and leads to apoptosis and downregulation of T-cell effector function
17. Lennartsson et al. (2005) Review article USA C-KIT is a key regulator of growth, differentiation, migration, and proliferation of melanocytes
18. Chaudhry et al. (1958) Review of 105 cases 105 USA 80 % (93 out of 105 pts) cases of oral melanoma originated in maxilla