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Table 1 Diffusion tensor imaging studies in stimulant abuse

From: White matter deficits assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and cognitive dysfunction in psychostimulant users with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection

References n (drug users, controls) Stimulant Resultsa Exclusionsb
Moeller et al. [12] 18, 18 Cocaine Decreased FA in genu and rostrum of CC, no difference in other areas of CC Nonpsychiatric medical disorders which affect the CNS
Lim et al. [58] 21, 21 Cocaine Decreased FA in inferior frontal cortex, but not superior frontal or occipital cortex
Ma et al. [8] 19, 18 Cocaine Decreased FA in isthmus and splenium of the CC, increased RD in isthmus and rostral body, increased MD in isthmus and rostral body Medical disorders that may affect the CNS
Lane et al. [9] 15, 18 Cocaine Decreased FA in parietal and frontal regions (mainly right corticospinal tract, right superior corona radiata, bilateral anterior corona radiata) and anterior CC, increased RD in frontal, parietal, and occipital regions (mainly bilateral corticospinal tracts, superior corona radiata, left posterior corona radiata, left optic radiation, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left posterior thalamic radiation, left retrolenticular internal capsule) and left posterior body of CC and bilateral anterior CC Medical disorders that may affect the CNS, comorbid alcohol dependence
Bell et al. [59] 43, 43 Cocaine Decreased FA in left anterior callosal fibers, left genu of the CC, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, right callosal fibers, and the superior corona radiata bilaterally Diagnosis of HIV
Ma et al. [60] 12, 12 Cocaine Decreased FA in bilateral anterior corona radiata, but not in the CC Medical disorders that may affect the CNS
Chung et al. [61] 32, 30 Methamphetamine Decreased FA bilateral frontal white matter at AC-PC plane, right frontal above AC-PC plane Lifetime significant medical illnesses
Alicata et al. [62] 30, 30 Methamphetamine Decreased FA right frontal white matter; higher ADC left caudate and bilateral putamen Comorbid medical illnesses, no alcohol or other drug dependence
Kim et al. [10] 11, 13 Methamphetamine Decreased FA in genu of CC No screening for HIV status, alcohol dependence, lifetime use of other addictive drug
Salo et al. [45] 37, 17 Methamphetamine No significant difference in FA or ADC of CC Substance dependence other than methamphetamine in the past year, alcohol abuse in past 5 years, HIV seropositivity
Tobias et al. [11] 23, 18 Methamphetamine Decreased FA in right prefrontal cortex superior to AC-PC, genu of CC, mid-caudal superior corona radiata bilaterally, right perforant fibers (hippocampus) Heavy marijuana or alcohol use, HIV seropositivity
Lin et al. [63] 18, 22 Methamphetamine No significant difference in FA, RD, MD, or AD for caudate and putamen Dependence on any other drug except nicotine requiring medical treatment
  1. – Information not provided, AC-PC anterior commissure-posterior commissure, ADC apparent diffusion coefficient, AD axial diffusivity, CC corpus callosum, FA fractional anisotropy, MD mean diffusivity, RD radial diffusivity
  2. aDrug users compared to healthy controls
  3. bOnly exclusion criteria relevant to drug use or HIV/AIDS