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Table 2 Diffusion tensor imaging studies in HIV/AIDS

From: White matter deficits assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and cognitive dysfunction in psychostimulant users with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection

References N (HIV ± , controls) Disease duration On anti-retroviral therapy (%) CD4 count (mean cells/uL) Resultsa Exclusionsb
Pomara et al. [64] 6, 9 83 % 288.67 Decreased FA in frontal lobes. No difference in FA for parietal lobe, temporal lobe, or genu or splenium of CC. Increased FA in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, no difference in anterior limb of internal capsule. No differences in MD Current alcohol or substance abuse
Ragin et al. [65] 11, 11 100 % No differences in centrum semiovale, caudate, putamen None relevant
Thurnher et al. [66] 60, 30 Decreased FA in genu of CC, increased ADC in genu of the CC None relevant
Wu et al. [67] 11, 11a same sample as Ragin et al. [82] 100 % Decreased FA in splenium of CC. Increased MD in splenium of CC. No differences in genu of CC and frontal white matter None relevant
Pfefferbaum et al. [68] 42, 88 Mean 8.4 years 79 % 546.6 No significant differences in CC regions Recent drug abuse or dependence
Stebbins et al. [69] 30, 30 Mean 9.9 years 77 % 612.8 Decreased FA in right middle frontal gyrus, left cuneus, left precuneus, right precentral gyrus, right cingulum, right insula, right internal capsule near pulvinar, increased FA in bilateral medial frontal lobes, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right interior frontal lobe, left precentral gyrus, right cingulum, right parietal lobes. Decreased MD in right middle frontal gyrus and right ventriculus lateralis. Increased MD in left superior frontal, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right cingulum, bilateral precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left cuneus, right anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule Substance abuse within the last 6 months
Chang et al. [37] 39, 32 Mean 13.7 years 461.9 Decreased FA in parietal white matter and increased MD in frontal white matter, after 1 year follow up increased MD in frontal and parietal white matter, putamen, and genu of CC History of drug dependence in the past
Schulte et al. [70] 19, 17 68.40 % 486 No changes in FA and MD of CC Axis I psychiatric diagnosis
Chen et al. [39] 29, 18 62 % Decreased FA in frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital white matter and CC in HIV associated dementia subgroup, and in HIV non-dementia subgroup decreased in frontal, occipital white matter and CC. Increased MD in both dementia and non-dementia in frontal, parietal, temporal and CC white matter. Increased AD in parietal white matter and CC in dementia subgroup, and increase in CC in non dementia subgroup. Increase in RD in frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital white matter and CC in dementia while non dementia incrase in frontal, parietal, temporal white matter and CC. No differences in any measures for the internal capsule
Gongvatana et al. [22] 39, 25 82 % 529 Decreased FA in posterior limb of the internal capsule, right interior longitudinal fasciculus, right optic radiation. No significant differnce in MD Substance use disorder in last 6 months
Pfefferbaum et al. [71] 42, 88a same sample as in Pfefferbaum et al. [68] Mean 8.4 years 79 % 546.6 No changes in FA in internal capsule, external capsule, fornix, frontal forceps, occipital forceps, superior cingulate, inferior cingulate, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, pontocerebellar tract, cerebellar hemispheres, CC. Increased longitudinal diffusivity in internal capsule and superior cingulate Alcohol or substance abuse
Muller-Oehring et al. [72] 21, 19 86 % 519 No changes in FA of CC
Hoare et al. [73] 46, 10 Diagnosis made in last 6 months 0 % 211.51 Decreased FA in rostrum of CC, sagittal striatum, and the cingulum Recent substance abuse history within 6 months
Du et al. [74] 10, 24   Decreased FA and increased MD for whole brain white matter none relevant
Jacqueline et al. [18] 40, 10 0 % 193.61 In subgroup with poor prospective memory (n = 27), there was decreased FA in the corpus callosum, sagittal striatum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subgroup with good prospective memory (n = 13), there was increased FA in superior longitudinal fasciculus. No differences in MD Recent 6 month drug abuse history
Schulte et al. [75] 16, 15 81 % 556.3 Decreased FA in inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus Non alcohol drug abuse or dependence in last 3 months or use of drugs in the past month
Stubbe-Drager et al. [76] 19, 19 Mean 6.8 years 68 % Decreased FA in CC, temporal, and posterior region Current alcohol or substance abuse
Wright et al. [77] 42, 21 Mean 4.5 years in antiretroviral group, 1.5 years in antiretroviral naïve group 50 % 384 in antiretroviral group, 371 in antiretroviral naïve Antiretroviral naïve (n = 21) had decreased MD, AD, RD for each CC region and the centrum semiovale, no differences in FA. No differences in antiretroviral group (n = 21) in any measure Active substance abuse
Leite et al. [16] 34, 27 Median 13 years 679 Decreased FA in body of CC, no differences in FA of corona radiata. Increased RD and MD in body of CC, left superior corona radiata, left posterior corona radiata. Increased MD in right posterior corona radiata. No significant differences in any measures of right anterior and superior corona radiata and left anterior corona radiata, cingulate gyri
Xuan et al. [78] 23, 20 Decreased FA and increased ADC in CC genu and rostrum, body, and splenium, the lateral periventricular white matter, and frontal and parietal lobar white matter, internal capsule, and occipital white matter in the symptomatic group. In the asymptomatic group, significantly decreased FA and ADC in all regions except internal capsule and occipital white matter None relevant
Zhu et al. [19] 50, 13 Mean 10.7 years in no cognitive impairment group, 15.1 with cognitive impairment 82 % 386.3 no CI, 230.4 with CI Increased MD in posterior area of frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe for non cognitive impaired, included prefrontal in cognitively impaired, FA decreased only in cognitively impaired subgroup in fibers associated or connected to prefrontal cortex Abusing drugs or alcohol in last 6 months
Kamat et al. [79] 19, 19 Mean 5.8 years 340 (median) Decreased FA in bilateral anterior corona radiata, genu of CC, and left orbital-medial prefrontal cortex Current substance dependence of abuse
Nir et al. [80] 56, 31 Mean 20 years 95 % 520 Decreased FA and MD, RD, and AD increases diffusely through whole brain white matter, greatest differences in CC and projection fibers of corona radiata Major psychiatric illness
Correa et al. [81] 47, 19 Mea 13.06 years (planning deficit group) and 12.50 years (no planning deficit) 100 % 693.41 (planning deficit group) and 606.25 (no planning deficits) In the subgroup with deficits in planning, decreased FA and increased MD and RD in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, genu and splenium of CC, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, bilateral uncinate fasciculi, increased AD in left anterior thalamic radiation, left inferior fronto-occipital, and left longitudinal fasciculi. In the subgroup with no planning deficits, no significant changes in FA, RD, MD, and AD Illicit drug use in the past year
Ragin et al. [82] 15, 20 Less than 100 days 53 % 580 Decreased FA in the CC and increased MD in caudate Chronic or active drug abuse
Wright et al. [83] 78, 19 <1 year for primary infection group (n = 62) and mean 11.5 years for chronic infected group (n = 16) 0 % 573 for primary infected group, 223 for chronic infected group Decreased FA and increased MD for CC and whole brain white matter in chronically infected subgroup (n = 16) but not primary infected group of < 1 year (n = 62)
  1. – Information not provided, AC-PC anterior commissure-posterior commissure, ADC apparent diffusion coefficient, AD axial diffusivity, CC corpus callosum, FA fractional anisotropy, MD mean diffusivity, RD radial diffusivity
  2. aDrug users compared to healthy controls
  3. bOnly exclusion criteria relevant to drug use or HIV/AIDS