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Table 1 Summary characteristics of trauma patients in the retrospective study

From: A joint latent class model for classifying severely hemorrhaging trauma patients

Patient characteristics Total MT Non-MT
(n = 471) (n = 211) (n = 260)
Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a
Mortality
 Mortality, 0–24 h 68 (14.4 %) 51 (24.2 %) 17 (6.5 %)
 Mortality, 0–30 h 122 (25.9 %) 75 (35.5 %) 47 (18.1 %)
Clinical outcomes
 Ventilation days 5.57  (9.99) 5.79  (9.39) 5.44  (10.34)
 Intensive care unit days 8.55  (11.75) 9.98  (12.19) 7.38  (11.28)
 Hospital days 17.42  (20.98) 20.68  (24.23) 15.09  (18.03)
Patient characteristics
 Age (year) 41.04  (19.17) 40.48  (18.62) 41.50  (19.62)
 Gender (male) 350  (74.3 %) 163  (77.2 %) 187  (71.9 %)
 Penetrating injury 37.24  (29.39) 42.82  (33.27) 32.27  (24.46)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 112.25  (35.446) 103.46  (32.74) 119.38  (36.01)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.72  (24.11) 69.76  (22.78) 71.61  (25.29)
 Heart rate (bpm) 106.26  (27.46) 115.41  (27.40) 98.83  (25.23)
 Respiratory rate 21.42  (7.28) 22.31  (8.41) 20.78  (6.29)
 Temperature (°C) 35.91  (1.05) 35.85  (1.26) 35.96  (0.86)
 pH 7.25 (0.14) 7.21  (0.16) 7.28  (0.11)
 International normalized ratio 1.44  (0.76) 1.56  (0.75) 1.33  (0.76)
 Base deficit −8.23  (6.11) −10.05  (6.50) −6.78  (5.37)
 Glasgow Coma Scale 10.53  (6.70) 9.30  (5.52) 11.54  (7.38)
 Injury severity score 27.68  (15.27) 32.35  (16.03) 23.87  (13.50)
Blood products usage
 RBC, 0–6 h (units) 8.95  (10.92) 16.91  (12.11) 2.49  (1.99)
 RBC, 0–24 h (units) 11.67  (12.32) 21.41  (12.71) 3.77  (2.17)
 Plasma, 0–6 h (units) 4.86  (6.86) 9.51  (7.75) 1.08  (2.16)
 Plasma, 0–24 h (units) 6.87  (8.90) 13.09  (9.76) 1.83  (3.06)
 Platelets, 0–6 h (units) 2.57  (6.04) 5.45  (8.01) 0.23  (1.43)
 Platelets, 0–24 h (units) 4.54  (9.43) 9.44  (12.26) 0.56  (2.01)
 Plasma/RBC ratio, 0–24 h (units) 0.51  (0.59) 0.63  (0.37) 0.41  (0.71)
 Platelet/RBC ratio, 0–24 h (units) 0.24  (0.40) 0.43  (0.40) 0.09  (0.32)
  1. aMean (SD) is for continuous variables. For categorical (or binary) variables, count (%) are reported as indicated by the % sign