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Table 3 Review summary of SLN biopsy in gynaecological cancers using NIR fluorescence

From: A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system

Reference Cancer type Surgical procedure Imaging device No. of patients Key results
Furukawa [26] Cervical Open Photodynamic eye (Hamamatsu) 12 At least 1 SLN identified in 83 % of the patients
Crane [27] Cervical Open Custom made prototype 10 Intraoperative detection rate = 64 % relative to total number of ex vivo fluorescent SLNs
Crane [11] Vulvar Open Custom made prototype 10 Detection rates relative to gamma probe: fluorescence = 89.7 %, patent blue = 72.4 %
Van der Vorst [10] Cervical Open Mini-FLARE 9 At least 1 SLN identified in each patient. Optimal ICG:HSA dose: 500 μM
Rossi [28] Endometrial/cervical Robotic-assisted laparoscopy SPY scope (Novadaq) 20 At least 1 SNL identified in 85 % of the cases
Holloway [8] Endometrial Robotic-assisted laparoscopy Da Vinci NIR fluorescence imaging system 35 At least 1 SLN identified in 97 % of the patients with fluorescence and 77 % with calorimetric analysis
Hutteman [9] Vulvar Open Mini-FLARE 9 Detection rates relative to gamma probe: fluorescence = 100 %, patent blue = 71 % Optimal ICG:HSA dose: 750 μM
Schaafsma [29] Cervical Open Mini-FLARE 18 At least 1 SLN identified in 97 % of the patients. No significant difference in signal-to-background ratio between ICG alone and ICG:HSA
Schaafsma [13] Vulval Open Mini-FLARE 24 Detection rates relative to gamma probe: fluorescence = 100 %, patent blue = 77 % No significant difference in detection rate between ICG alone and ICG:HSA
Rossi [12] Endometrial Robotic-assisted laparoscopy SPY® scope (Novadaq) 29 SLN detection rate: 82 % for cervical injection, 33 % for hysteroscopic endometrial injection
Mathéron [18] Vulval Open Photodynamic eye (Hamamatsu) 15 SLN detection rate: 98 % radioactive, 96 % fluorescence, 65 % blue dye
Jewell [21] Endometrial/cervical Robotic-assisted laparoscopy PINPOINT® (Novadaq) 227 SLN detection rate: 95 %. Combined use of ICG and blue dye proved unnecessary
Sinno [30] Endometrial Robotic-assisted laparoscopy PINPOINT® (Novadaq) 71 Fluorescence ICG superior than blue dye (78.9 % vs. 42.4 % bilateral detection rate)