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Table 2 Factors associated to air flow limitation (AFL–LLN) in univariable analysis

From: Prevalence of obstructive lung disease in an African country using definitions from different international guidelines: a community based cross-sectional survey

Characteristics AFL–LLN n = 49 (%) No AFL n = 1238 (%) COR (95 % CI) p value
Sex
 Male 32 (65.3) 587 (47.4) 2.09 (1.15–3.80) 0.014
 Female 17 (34.7) 651 (52.6) 1  
Age, years, m (SD) 39.1 (15.2) 34.2 (12.6) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.008
Age group
 19–39 27 (55.1) 884 (71.4) 1  
 40–60 17 (34.7) 289 (23.3) 1.93 (1.03–3.58) 0.036
 ≥60 5 (10.2) 65 (5.3) 2.52 (0.94–6.76) 0.071
Level of education
 ≤Secondary 32/48 (66.7) 822/1237 (66.5) 1.01 (0.55–1.86) 0.975
 Higher education 16/48 (33.3) 415/1237 (33.5) 1  
Subject/chamber
 ≤2 26 (53.1) 689/1236 (55.7) 1 0.711
 >2 23 (46.9) 547/1236 (44.3) 1.11 (0.63–1.98)  
Tobacco smoking
 Current smoker 10 (20.4) 110/1234 (8.9) 2.70 (1.30–5.61) 0.008
 Ex-smokers 4 (8.2) 83/1234 (6.7) 1.43 (0.50–4.13) 0.505
 Non smokers 35 (71.4) 1041/1234 (84.4) 1  
Cooking fuel
 Biomass 1/43 (2.3) 98/1209 (8.1) 0.32 (0.04–2.46) 0.276
 Mixed 25/43 (58.1) 571/1209 (47.2) 1.39 (0.74–2.60) 0.303
 Clean 17/43 (39.5) 540/1209 (44.7) 1  
Past history of TB
 No 48 (98) 1218 (98.4) 1  
 Yes 1 (2) 20 (1.6) 1.27 (0.17–9.65) 0.818
Past history of pneumonia
 No 47 (95.9) 1203 (97.3) 1  
 Yes 2 (4.1) 34 (2.7) 1.51 (0.35–6.45) 0.582
HIV infection
 No 33 (67.3) 972 (78.5) 1  
 Yes 1 (2) 10 (0.8) 2.95 (0.37–23.69) 0.310
 Don’t know 15 (30.6) 256 (20.7) 1.73 (0.92–3.23) 0.087
Chronic cough
 No 48 (98) 1214 (98.1) 1  
 Yes 1 (2) 24 (1.9) 1.05 (0.14–7.95) >0.999
Chronic expectoration
 No 48 (98) 1229 (99.3) 1  
 Yes 1 (2) 9 (0.7) 2.85 (0.35–22.91) 0.323
Chronic dyspnoea 1
 No 48 (98) 1181 (95.4) 1  
 Yes 1 (2) 57 (4.6) 0.43 (0.06–3.18) 0.722
Lifetime wheezing
 No 42 (85.7) 1156/1234 (93.7) 1  
 Yes 7 (14.3) 78/1234 (6.3) 2.47 (1.08–5.68) 0.038
BMI, kg, m(SD) 25.8 (4.4) 26.5 (5.45) 0.98 (0.92–1.03) 0.410
  1. m mean, SD standard deviation, TB tuberculosis, BMI body mass index, AFL air flow limitation, LLN lower limit of normal