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Table 4 Factors associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD–LLN) in univariable analysis

From: Prevalence of obstructive lung disease in an African country using definitions from different international guidelines: a community based cross-sectional survey

Characteristics COPD n = 31 (%) No COPD n = 1245 (%) OR (95 % CI) p value
Sex
 Male 21 (67.7) 587 (47.1) 2.35 (1.10–5.04) 0.023
 Female 10 (32.3) 658 (52.9) 1  
Age, years, m (SD) 38.5 (14.1) 34.2 (12.7) 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 0.071
Age group
 19–39 19 (61.3) 887 (71.2) 1  
 40–60 8 (25.8) 292 (23.5) 1.28 (0.55–2.95) 0.564
 ≥60 4 (12.9) 66 (5.3) 2.83 (0.94–8.56) 0.066
Level of education
 ≤Secondary 21/30 (70) 825/1244 (66.3) 1.19 (0.54–2.61) 0.673
 Higher education 9/30 (30) 419/1244 (33.7) 1  
Subject/chamber
 ≤2 16 (61.6) 695/1243 (55.9) 1 0.634
 >2 15 (48.4) 548/1243 (44.1) 0.84 (0.41–1.72)  
Tobacco smoking
 Current smoker 4 (12.9) 113/1241 (9.1) 1.55 (0.53–4.52) 0.432
 Ex-smokers 3 (9.7) 84/1241 (6.8) 1.55 (0.46–5.27) 0.479
 Non smokers 24 (77.4) 1044/1241 (84.1) 1  
Cooking fuel
 Clean 9/27 (33.3) 544/1214 (44.8) 1  
 Biomass 1 (3.7) 97 (8) 0.62 (0.08–4.97) 0.655
 Mixed 17 (63) 573 (47.2) 1.79 (0.79–4.06) 0.161
Past history of TB
 No 30 (96.8) 1226/1245 (98.5) 1  
 Yes 1 (3.2) 19/1245 (1.5) 2.15 (0.28–16.60) 0.391
Past history of pneumonia
 No 30 (96.8) 1209/1244 (97.2) 1  
 Yes 1 (3.2) 35/1244 (2.8) 1.15 (0.15–8.68) 0.891
HIV infection
 No 20 (64.5) 977/1245 (78.5) 1  
 Yes 1 (3.2) 10/1245 (0.8) 4.86 (0.60–40.00) 0.139
 Don’t know 10 (32.3) 258/1245 (20.7) 1.89 (0.88–4.10) 0.105
Chronic cough/expectoration
 No 30 (96.8) 1219/1245 (97.9) 1  
 Yes 1 (3.2) 26/1245 (2.1) 1.56 (0.21–11.89) 0.489
Chronic dyspnea
 No 30 (96.8) 1188/1245 (95.4) 1  
 Yes 1 (3.2) 57/1245 (4.6) 0.70 (0.09–5.19) >0.999
Lifetime wheezing
 No 26 (83.9) 1161/1241 (93.6) 1  
 Yes 5 (16.1) 80 (6.4) 2.79 (1.04–7.46) 0.033
 BMI, kg, m(SD) 27.2 (4.6) 26.4 (5.5) 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 0.445
  1. OR odd’s ration, M mean, SD standard deviation, TB tuberculosis, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, LLN lower limit of normal