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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted relative risk ratios of association between selected women and children characteristics and postnatal care non-utilization in Nigeria

From: Determinants of postnatal care non-utilization among women in Nigeria

Characteristics Unadjusted Adjusted
Non-utilization vs appropriate PNC Some level of care vs appropriate PNC Non-utilization vs appropriate PNC Some level of care vs appropriate PNC
RR RR RR RR
Mothers age at child birth
 15–24 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 25–34 0.88 1.18* 0.76* 0.86
 35+ 1.12 1.29* 0.78 0.89
Pregnancy wantedness
 Then 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Later 0.41* 0.79* 0.78* 0.94
 No more 0.50* 0.93 0.73 0.87
Education
 No education 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 0.31* 0.99 0.52* 0.84
 Secondary and higher 0.21* 1.17* 0.38* 0.65*
Marital status
 Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Currently married 2.58* 1.49* 1.02 1.08
 Formerly married 1.86* 1.37 0.87 0.96
Occupation     
 Not working 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Formal employment 0.53* 1.85* 1.15 1.31*
 Sales 0.70* 1.05 0.81 1.01
 Agricultural employment 0.76* 0.90 1.00 0.90
 Other 0.84 1.08 1.02 1.19
Religion
 Christian 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Islam 2.39* 0.83* 1.16 0.97
 Other 9.49* 2.31 4.17* 2.81
Region
 South west 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 North central 2.10* 0.86 1.81* 1.25
 North east 2.68* 0.80* 1.66* 1.63*
 North west 5.35* 0.66* 3.37* 1.54*
 South east 2.04* 1.41* 1.45* 1.09
 South south 1.30* 0.74* 1.93* 1.42*
Wealth status
 Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Middle 0.33* 0.86 0.57* 0.80
 Rich 0.21* 1.13 0.38* 0.66*
Place of residence
 Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Rural 2.06* 0.78* 1.05 1.11
Birth order
 1–2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 3–4 1.22* 1.03 1.37* 1.20*
 5+ 1.61* 0.98 1.53* 1.30*
Birth size     
 Larger than average 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Average 1.03 0.97 1.01 1.01
 Smaller than average 1.54* 0.94 1.24 1.03
Child sex
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.06 1.04 1.05 1.07
ANC use
 No ANC 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Received ANC 0.21* 0.95 0.25* 0.46*
Distance     
 Big problem 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Not a big problem 0.44* 0.99 0.62* 0.83*
Place of delivery
 Health facility 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Non-health facility 0.31* 0.07* 0.05* 0.03*
  1. * P < 0.05