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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by proteinuria status (n = 141), Kampala, Uganda; 2013

From: Prevalence and correlates of proteinuria in Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional pilot study

Demographic and clinical characteristics All, n = 141 With proteinuria, n = 18 (13 %) Without proteinuria, n = 121 (87 %) Crude PR (95 % CI) Adjusted PRa (95 % CI)
Age
 18–39 years old 87 14 (16 %) 72 (84 %) 3.74 (0.89–15.77) 7.96 (1.39–45.44)
 40–59 years old 46 2 (4 %) 44 (96 %) Ref Ref
 ≥60 years old 4 0 4 (100 %)
Gender
 Male 60 9 (15 %) 50 (85 %) 1.36 (0.57–3.21)
 Female 81 9 (11 %) 71 (89 %) Ref
Occupation
 Unemployed 6 1 (17 %) 5 (83 %) Ref
 Student 27 2 (7 %) 25 (93 %)
 Wage earnerb 33 7 (21 %) 26 (79 %) 1.35 (0.30–6.10)
 Professionalc 71 7 (10 %) 63 (90 %) 2.25 (0.24–20.96)
History of Smoking 2 0 2 (100 %)
History of alcohol intake 54 11 (20 %) 43 (80 %) 2.44 (1.01–5.92) 3.92 (1.10–14.03)
 18–39 years old 31 10 (32 %) 21 (68 %) 4.35 (1.49–12.7)
 40–59 years old 20 1 (5 %) 19 (95 %) 1.30 (0.09–19.5)
 >60 years old 2 0 2 (100 %)
Self-reported medical history
 Hypertension 21 1 (5 %) 20 (95 %)
 Diabetes mellitus 8 2 (25 %) 6 (75 %)
 Heart diseased 4 0 4 (100 %)
Body mass index
 Normal weight 58 8 (14 %) 50 (86 %) Ref
 Overweight 81 10 (12 %) 71 (88 %) 1.24 (0.49–3.14)
 Obese 40 3 (8 %) 37 (92 %) 0.54 (0.15–1.93)
Hypertension 54 9 (17 %) 45 (83 %) 1.57 (0.67–3.71) 1.50 (0.41–5.83)
 Systolic hypertension 38 8 (21 %) 30 (79 %) 2.13 (0.91–4.98)
 Diastolic hypertension 29 5 (17 %) 24 (83 %) 1.46 (0.57–3.76)
 Impaired fasting glucose 19 5 (26 %) 14 (74 %) 2.43 (0.98–6.04) 1.64 (0.28–9.73)
  1. PR prevalence ratio
  2. aCo-variates: gender, occupation, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose
  3. bWage earner: any non-salaried position (e.g., construction worker, farmer)
  4. cProfessional: any salaried position (e.g. nurse, teacher, government employee)
  5. dHeart disease: coronary disease, heart failure, or structural diseases