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Table 1 State of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions visited

From: Nodding syndrome and epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions: comparing preliminary observations from South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo with data from Uganda

  Northern Uganda: Gulu, Kitgum, Pader and Lamwo districts South Sudan: Western Equatoria State Democratic Republic of the Congo: Bas-Uélé, Orientale Province
Year of first NS cases NS cases reported since 2000 [1] NS cases reported since 1990 [2, 3] Unknown
Tribes Acholi Moro and dinka Bowa, Zande, Lokele, Kango and others
Migration IDP camps during civil war IDP camps and “hiding in the forest” during civil war No important migration, but some “hiding in the forest” during conflicts
Prevalence of all forms of epilepsy 2.9 % (Moyo, Adjumani, Kitgum and Gulu districts, 2010)a 9 % (Mvolo, 2013) 2.3 % (Titule, 2014) [22]
Prevalence of NS 0.68 % probable NS cases among children aged 5–18 years in three districts, 2012–2013 [27] Exact prevalence never assessed but high based on high epilepsy prevalence No confirmed NS according to WHO case definition, but NS-like suspected cases reported in the region
Stunted growth with lack of secondary sexual characteristics Present, exact prevalence not reported Present, not frequent
Nutritional status Often poor [6] Often poor [3] Generally good
Availability of anti- epileptic drugs Sodium valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin Generally not available Phenobarbital available but often not affordable
Epidemiological situation of NS/epilepsy NS/epilepsy epidemic until 2013 [18] Ongoing NS/epilepsy epidemic Endemic epilepsy
Incidence of NS/epilepsy Very limited new cases of NS [14] Still new NS/epilepsy cases Stable incidence of new epilepsy cases
Ivermectin distribution Twice a year
Not distributed during war
Once a year, low coverage
Not distributed during war
Once a year
Interrupted in 2004 [23], not distributed during war
Prevalence of onchocerciasis Decreasing Not known Decreasing
Loa Loa endemic region No No Yes
Insecticide/larvicide use Before 1972 and since 2012 [26] Only before 1972 Never
General ecology Savannah forest Tropical forest
Location of villages Close to rapid flowing blackfly-breeding rivers
  1. NS nodding syndrome, IDP internally displaced persons
  2. a JK personnal communication, unpublished