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Table 3 Qualitative themes and sub-categories

From: Facilitators and barriers to NCD prevention in Pakistanis–invincibility or inevitability: a qualitative research study

Major themes Categories Sub-categories Excerpts from the patients’ narratives
Factors affecting NCD preventive behaviours Positive factors/facilitators
Fear of premature health
Experience of illness
Familial inheritance of diseases
Education level of the patient
Contributing actions
Medication compliance
Follow-ups/checkups
Diet Regimen
Self-monitoring
“I never miss my medications, they are most important to me”
“My father had diabetes; I knew I will get it, so I had already controlled my intake of sugar”
Negative factors/barriers
Inadequate health education
Health care system constraints
Knowledge deficit
Lack of insight about seriousness of disease
No symptoms = no risk
Invincibility/lack of threat appreciation
Unpredictability of disease
Fatalism
Finance
Cost of fresh food, vegetables and unsaturated oil
Contributing actions
No regular screening
Cost of the diagnostic tests
Inability to interpret numeric values
Self-medication
Cholesterol screening not considered risk
NCD diagnosed while seeking help for other medical conditions
Sudden onset of acute events
NCD are unpreventable
Proactive help-seeking not a priority
“10 years ago, at the time of diagnosis, I did not know how much blood pressure was high, and how much was low. I learnt it over time, when I went through its fluctuating levels “
“I stopped my medications after angioplasty for 2 years…had another heart attack and had a By- pass then”
“I check BP and sugar regularly because alterations in it make me nonfunctional”