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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with mental distress

From: Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among Hawassa University medical students, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Variables (n = 240) Total symptoms scorea OR (95% CI)
≥8 <8 Crude Adjusted
No. (%) No. (%)
Sex
 Male 55 (76.4) 123 (73.2) 1.18 (0.62–2.25) NA
 Female 17 (23.6) 45 (26.8) 1
Age groupb
 ≤21 53 (73.6) 92 (54.8) 2.30 (1.26–4.22)** NA
 >21 19 (26.4) 76 (45.2) 1
Students monthly income in Birr
 ≤400 36 (50.0) 64 (38.1) 1 1
 401–700 19 (26.4) 47 (28.0) 0.72 (0.37–1.41) 0.58 (0.26–1.27)
 ≥701 17 (23.6) 57 (33.9) 0.53 (0.27–1.05) 0.52 (0.22–1.26)
Feeling towards their GPA
 Happy and satisfied 27 (37.5) 67 (39.9) 1 NA
 Happy but I can do better 32 (44.4) 83 (49.4) 0.96 (0.52–1.75)
 Not happy 13 (18.1) 18 (10.7) 1.79 (0.77–4.16)
Visiting religious place
 At least once in two weeks 62 (86.1) 147 (87.5) 1 NA
 Occasionally 6 (8.3) 14 (8.3) 0.74 (0.21–2.61)
 Never 4 (5.6) 7 (4.2) 0.75 (0.16–3.56)
Year of study
 Pre-medicine 30 (41.7) 38 (22.6) 3.78 (1.79–7.99)** 3.61 (1.45–8.97)**
 Pre-clinical 28 (38.9) 63 (37.5) 2.13 (1.03–4.41)* 1.55 (0.64–3.72)
 Clinical 14 (19.4) 67 (39.9) 1 1
Relationship with fellows
 Very good 19 (26.4) 60 (35.7) 1 NA
 Good 49 (68.1) 100 (59.5) 1.55 (0.83–2.87)
 Poor 4 (5.6) 8 (4.8) 1.58 (0.42–5.83)
Perception of medical school
 Very stressful 26 (36.1) 28 (16.7) 3.16 (1.44–6.92)** 3.89 (1.52–9.94)**
 Stressful 31 (43.1) 89 (53.0) 1.18 (0.58–2.40) 1.20 (0.54–2.68)
 Not stressful at all 15 (20.8) 51 (30.4) 1 1
Attitude towards sanitary facility
 Dissatisfied 57 (79.2) 99 (58.9) 2.65 (1.39–5.06)* 1.95 (0.95–4.02)
 Satisfied 15 (20.8) 84 (35.0) 1 1
Attitude to recreational facility
 Dissatisfied 65 (90.3) 131 (78.0) 2.62 (1.11–6.20)* 1.78 (0.67–4.75)
 Satisfied 7 (9.7) 37 (22.0) 1 1
Feeling towards living room
 Overcrowded 51 (70.8) 77 (45.8) 2.87 (1.59–5.19)*** 2.43 (1.24–4.79)**
 Not overcrowded 21 (29.2) 91 (54.2) 1  
Feeling towards their safety
 Feel insecure 39 (54.2) 38 (22.6) 4.04 (2.25–7.28)*** 2.93 (1.51–5.68)***
 Feel secure 33 (45.8) 130 (77.4) 1 1
Substance use
 At least one substance 12 (16.7) 29 (17.3) 0.96 (0.46–2.01) NA
 Not at all 60 (83.3) 139 (2.7) 1
  1. Birr: 1 USD = 20 Birr
  2. NA Not applicable (excluded from the multivariate model since their P value was greater than 0.25)
  3. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, and *** P < 0.001
  4. a≥8 was categorized as mentally distressed
  5. bAge was highly correlated with year of study (r = 0.8) and removed from the multivariate model