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Table 2 Comparison and treatment groups before and after the removal of user fees

From: An assessment of the effect of user fee policy reform on facility-based deliveries in rural Zambia

Variable Comparison group (N = 2118) Treatment group (N = 1500)
Pre-reform Post-reform Diff (post–pre) Pre-reform Post-reform Diff (post–pre)
Dependent variables
 Delivery at home 0.312 0.354 0.042*** 0.566 0.607 0.041**
 Delivery at a public health facility 0.646 0.612 −0.034* 0.373 0.340 −0.033*
 Delivery at a private health facility 0.042 0.034 −0.0081 0.061 0.053 −0.0078
Independent variables
Individual level variables
 Parity
  1 0.242 0.266 0.024 0.173 0.162 −0.011
  2–4 0.486 0.454 −0.033 0.461 0.488 0.027
  5+ 0.271 0.280 0.009 0.367 0.350 −0.016
 ANC utilisation
  Four or more visits 0.669 0.524 −0.144*** 0.674 0.564 −0.110***
 Religion
  Catholic 0.202 0.204 0.002 0.162 0.167 0.005
  Protestant 0.786 0.787 0.000 0.822 0.815 −0.007
  Other 0.011 0.009 −0.002 0.016 0.018 0.002
 Household childcare burden
  Number of children under five in HH 1.467 1.877 0.410*** 1.580 2.045 0.466***
 Woman’s employment status
  Employed 0.521 0.438 −0.084*** 0.554 0.467 −0.087***
 Woman’s education
  No education 0.075 0.080 0.005 0.143 0.162 0.018
  Primary 0.502 0.564 0.062** 0.649 0.632 −0.017
  Secondary and above 0.423 0.356 −0.067*** 0.207 0.206 −0.001
 Partner’s education
  No education 0.164 0.146 −0.018 0.160 0.183 0.023*
  Primary 0.318 0.383 0.066*** 0.482 0.491 0.009
  Secondary and above 0.518 0.470 −0.048** 0.357 0.326 −0.031*
  Index for actual quality of ANC received 1.568 0.884 −0.683*** −0.591 −1.014 −0.423**
 Household wealth
  Poorest 0.195 0.226 0.031* 0.518 0.561 0.043**
  Middle 0.150 0.179 0.029* 0.272 0.274 0.002
  Rich 0.655 0.595 −0.060*** 0.210 0.165 −0.045***
 Duration of residence
  0–4 (previous residence, rural) 0.167 0.204 0.037** 0.224 0.268 0.044***
  0–4 (previous residence, urban) 0.291 0.269 −0.021 0.090 0.083 −0.007
  5+ 0.542 0.526 −0.016 0.686 0.649 −0.038**
Community level variables
 Area type
  Urban 0.655 0.599 −0.056** 0.178 0.151 −0.027*
  Proportion of drugs available 0.726 0.739 0.013** 0.696 0.696 0.000
  Material deprivation index −1.633 −1.770 −0.137 0.512 0.545 0.033
  Distance to nearest facility 3.775 4.374 0.600*** 8.876 9.165 0.289
  Density of health facilities 0.117 0.118 0.001 0.150 0.147 −0.004*
  Prenatal care uptake 0.904 0.902 −0.002 0.988 0.988 0.001
  TBA per 1000 of pop 0.345 0.350 0.005 0.524 0.526 0.002
  1. Analysis variable means by treatment/control before and after the announcement of the abolition of delivery user fees in rural districts in Zambia, along with results from mean difference tests
  2. * Significant difference at 0.05
  3. ** Significant difference at 0.01
  4. *** Significant difference at 0.001